Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


PHD student in Persian language and literature at Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran. Iran


Metamorphosis, the most prominent work of Kafka (1833 – 1924), is one of the most controversial contemporary stories in 20th century Europe. After its publication in 1915, the story was the subject of debate for critics, and it was discussed from many perspectives. It narrates an imaginary event occurring in social realities of the time, and it shows an industrial society as a result of political and social changes in Europe. An industrial society, besides its advantages, willy-nilly brought with it unpleasant consequences. The study, explores the social and economic condition of Europe in the early 20th century and explains Gunter Andres theory, attempts to show that huge insect in the story is a metaphor that on the one hand appeared in the story in its common sense and has all the characteristics of an insect. On the other hand, based on the textual evidence, it represents one of the issues of modern and recently industrialized society. It compares the metamorphosis of a human to an insect to the human condition in bourgeoisie society.