Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران-مرکز

2 دانشگاه آزاد واحد تهران_مرکز

چکیده

 گزاف نگفته ایم اگر ادعا کنیم که همه شعر رنه شارشاعر فرانسوی مکان چالشی است میان مقوله متضاد «گشودگی» و «بستگی». در واقع در شعر او همیشه شاهد اشتیاق مفرط سوژه برای رفتن، گریز و تغییر دائمی از سویی و از سوی دیگر گرایش به بازگشت به مکان آغازینی که رفتن از آن آغاز می شود، می باشیم. بازگشت نه برای ماندنی دائمی بلکه برای آن که سوژه از این مکان آغازین به عنوان سکوی پرتاب بهره گیرد و سکوی پرتاب چیزی نیست مگر منبعی از انرژی برای سوژه ای که تن‌ها با تکیه بر این منبع انرژی مکان های اغازین به دنبال گشودگی به کشف امکانات متفاوت و ناشناخته هستی است. سوژه شار هرگز تن به جذابیت های فریبکارانه مکان های بسته که در آن ها می تواند دمی بیاساید نمی دهد. بلکه برعکس، او خود را پیوسته آماده برای احیایی دائمی می بیند. به بیان دیگر او خطر رفتن را به رخوت ماندن ترجیح می دهد. هدف اصلی این مقاله جواب به این پرسش است که اساساً در شعر شار چه تصویرهای شاعرانه ای این دو گرایش متضاد، یعنی میل به رفتن و «گشودگی» و بازگشت به مکان های آغازین آرامش بخش و حمایت کننده را به شیوه استعاری به تصویر می کشانند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

dialectic of openness and dependence in Rene Shar's poetry

نویسندگان [English]

  • narguesse yazdanpanah 1
  • morteza babak moeen 2

1 univercity tehran-markaz

2 univercity tehran-markaz

چکیده [English]

We have not exaggerated, if we claim that all the poetry of Rene Char is a challenge to the French poetry between the contradictory category of "openness" and "dependence." In fact, in his poetry, we always witness the exuberant desire of the subject to go, escape, and change permanently, and on the other hand, the tendency to return to the starting point where the departure had begun. The return is not for permanent stay, but for the subject to take advantage of this initial location as a launch pad, and the launch pad is nothing but an energy source for the subject which looks for openness to discover different possibilities only through relying on the source of energy of the initial locations. The subject of Char never tones to the deceptive charm of closed places where he can repose, but on the contrary, he sees himself continuously ready for permanent vivification. In other words, he would prefer the hazard of departure to indolence. So far, many studies have been done on poems and philosophical themes of Char, and critics have often criticized, studied and analyzed his works. Raychar explores the main themes of the Char's poetry and the dominance of his poetic language. In some part of this work, he analyzes Rambo's poetry in depth. By reading this section, the poet's influence on Char is clear. Char who has also been influenced by the Heraclite ideas, prefers the "permanent movement," "becoming," and "openness" to "the stagnation of rational and rational transparency." Char like Heraclite confirms the existence of a world in which everything, and even the world itself, is always in the midst of change. Therefore, every thought is rejected by the positivist certainty that is based on rational transparency. Char in Marto collection of poetry, quotes from Heraclite: "It should be remembered who forgets where the road ends" (cité par René Char, 1934: 11). This sentence emphasizes the denial of determination the proof that defines all the data beforehand. It can be argued that for Char what is essential is guaranteeing your presence at the moment, a moment that is full of anxiety and risk. The anxiety that comes from going to the unknown discovery that lies ahead of the subject. In fact, for Heraclite, like Char, "escaping from scientific certainty and giving up to the necessary and possible affair, while accepting the risk, is guaranteed to be present at the moment" (Fortier, 1996: 65). Char believes that in order to be present at the moment, we need an eternal death in the moment. In other words, the human being who is constantly witnessing his death at the moment and constantly living death is the living human being, because he is ready to accept new experiences at any moment. The main purpose of this paper is to answer the question that, basically, in the Char’s poetry which poetic images portray these two opposite tendencies, namely, the desire for departure and openness and return to consoling and supporting initiating places in a metaphorical manner.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Char
  • openness
  • reliance
  • vivification
  • Poetic Image

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