Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز

چکیده

خوانش فرهنگی رمان : کشت استخوانها اثر ادویج دانتیکت از منظر نظریه ی هویت استوارت هالخجسته مهرابیجلال سخنور  چکیدهمقاله حاضر در خوانشی فرهنگی کاربرد نظریه ی هویت استوارت هال را در رمان کشت استخوانها (۱۹۹۸) اثر ادویج دانتیکت بررسی میکند. مقوله ی «هویت به معنای صیرورت» در مورد قهرمان زن سیاه پوست این رمان، آمابل دیزایر، بررسی میشود. قهرمانی که ماجراهای گوناگون دردناکی را تجربه میکند که در شکل پذیری هویتش ضرورت دارند. نمود های مختلف جنبه‌های اجتماعی و تاریخی و نژادی که نقش اساسی در تشکیل هویت این زن جوان ایفا مینمایند در پرتو نظریه های کارشناسانه ی هال به بحث گذاشته خواهند شد. تمایز بین «هویت به معنای بودن» و «هویت به معنای شدن» که  دانتیکت آن را نمایان می‌سازد از اهمیتی وافر برخوردار است. به نظر میرسد این تمایز با تعریف هال از این دو نوع هویت همخوانی دارد. اگرچه این تمایز بعداً تبدیل به موضوعی ژرف تر میگردد زیرا آمابل در جستجویی دائم برای یافتن هویت خود  است. به این طریق خوانشی فرهنگی از این رمان برجسته تلاش دانتیکت برای خلق روابط و تعاملات  ناپایداری را نشان می دهد که  این شخصیت در تلاشی بی‌وقفه در جستجوی هویتی گمشده که همواره   بین « هویت به معنای بودن» و « هویت به معنای شدن» در نوسان است در آن قرار میگیرد. رمان نویس دیدگاه سنتی در مورد هویت -که آن را مقوله ای ثابت و بدون تغییر می انگارد- را رد میکند. آمابل دیزایر در مقام سوژه ای مهاجر نسبت به عناصر گوناگونی که  زمان و محیط اطرافش به او تحمیل میکنند آسیب‌پذیر است.  واژگان کلیدی :خوانش فرهنگ، دیاسپورا،  هویت، دیگر بودگی، گواهی  AbstractThe present study is undertaken to apply Stuart Hall’s theory of identity to Edwidge Danticat’s novel The Farming of Bones (1998) within a cultural reading. It specifically draws on the concept of ‘identity as becoming’ which will be traced in this novel’s black female protagonist, Amabelle Desir who experiences various painful adventures that are essential in her identity formation. Various manifestations of social, historical and racial aspects that play vital role in the construction of this young women’s identity will be discussed in the light of Hall’s critical perspective. The distinction between ‘identity as being’ and ‘identity as becoming’ depicted by Danticat is of utmost importance which seems in line with Hall’s definition of these two kinds of identity; however, it later turns to a more profound issue since Amabelle is in a permanent quest for her identity. In this way, a cultural reading of this outstanding novel reveals Danticat’s attempts to create unstable relations and interactions which put this character in a nonstop quest for a lost identity always oscillating between ‘identity as being’ and ‘identity as becoming’. Therefore the traditional view about identity according to which identity is regarded as a fixed and unchangeable entity is rejected throughout the sharp depictions illustrated by the novelist. Amabelle Desir as a diaspora subject is vulnerable to different elements that are imposed on her by time and her surroundings.    Key words: Cultural Reading- Diaspora- Identity-  Otherness- Testimonyخجسته مهرابیدانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی mehrabi@teachers.org

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Cultural Reading of a Selected Novel (The Farming of Bones) of Edwidge Danticat in the Light of Stuart Hall’s Theory of Identity

چکیده [English]

The present study is undertaken to apply Stuart Hall’s theory of identity to Edwidge Danticat’s novel The Farming of Bones (1998) within a cultural reading. It specifically draws on the concept of ‘identity as becoming’ which will be traced in this novel’s black female protagonist, Amabelle Desir who experiences various painful adventures that are essential in her identity formation. Various manifestations of social, historical and racial aspects that play vital role in the construction of this young women’s identity will be discussed in the light of Hall’s critical perspective. The distinction between ‘identity as being’ and ‘identity as becoming’ depicted by Danticat is of utmost importance which seems in line with Hall’s definition of these two kinds of identity; however, it later turns to a more profound issue since Amabelle is in a permanent quest for her identity. In this way, a cultural reading of this outstanding novel reveals Danticat’s attempts to create unstable relations and interactions which put this character in a nonstop quest for a lost identity always oscillating between ‘identity as being’ and ‘identity as becoming’. Therefore the traditional view about identity according to which identity is regarded as a fixed and unchangeable entity is rejected throughout the sharp depictions illustrated by the novelist. Amabelle Desir as a diaspora subject is vulnerable to different elements that are imposed on her by time and her surroundings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultural Reading- Diaspora-Identity- Otherness- Testimony

Danticat, Edwidge. The Farming of Bones. New York: Soho Press, Inc 1998. EPUB file.

Hall, Stuart. "Cultural Identity and Diaspora."Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990. 222-37.

--- . (1991)"Old and New Identities, Old and New Ethnicities." Culture, Globalization and the World-system: Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity. Ed. Anthony D. King. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997. 41-68.

--- . "The Question of Cultural Identity". In Modernity: An Introduction to Modern Societies Edited by Stuart Hall, David Held, Don Hubert, and Kenneth Thompson. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc, 2000, 595-634.

Herndon, Gerise. "Returns to Native Lands, Reclaiming the Other’s Language: Kincaid and Danticat." Journal of International Women’s Studies 3.1 (2001): 54-62. Web. 29 July 2015.

Hewett, Heather. " At the Crossroads: Disability and Trauma in The Farming of Bones" MELUS 31.3 (2006) http://melus.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/3/123.extract. Web. 12 July 2015.

Kurban, Michael R. The Assertion of Identity: Storytelling and Testimony in the Works of Edwidge Danticat. Diss. Bucknell University, 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.

Postigo, Daniela. “Author Danticat MFA’93 returns to campus for reading”. Brown Daily Herald. 21 Sep. 2007. Web. 25 Feb. 2015.

Ramond Jurney, Florence. "Exile and Relation to the Mother/Land in Edwidge Danticat's Breath,

Eyes, Memory and The Farming of Bones". Revista/Review Interamericana. 31.1-4

(2001).Web.23 Feb.2015.

Sairsingh, Marie. "The Archeology of Memory: Ontological Reclamation in Danticat’s

Brother, I’m Dying and the Farming of Bones." International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL) 1.1(2013):6-10. www.arcjournals.org, © ARC Journal. Web. 9 Aug. 2015.

Šesnić, Jelena. "Wounded History: A Reading of Edwidge Danticat’s Fiction." SRAZ LI, (2006):

-260.