Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی- واحد قم

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

مقالۀ پیش‌ رو به بررسی «گفتمان وا­ساز» در رمان ‌چشم‌‌هایشان‌ خدا را ‌می‌‌نگریست اثر زورا نیل هِرستون، نخستین رمان‌نویس زن آمریکایی‌‌ـ‌آفریقایی‌تبار می‌‌پردازد. مطالعات انجام‌‌شده بر روی برجسته‌ترین آثار فمینیستی سیاه‌پوستان آمریکا نشان می‌دهد که گفتمان وا­ساز ابزاری مؤثر در دست زنان سیاه‌پوست جهت مقابله با استثمارشان است. یکی از بارزترین ویژگی‌های این گفتمان نفی اصول نظام خرد‌ـ‌مرکز محور است‌ که‌ سال‌ها بسیاری از گروه‌های اقلیت را از داشتن صدایی مستقل محروم کرده بود. در گفتمان وا­ساز از عناصری استفاده می‌شود که توسط طبقۀ حاکم به‌صورت منفی تعریف شده و از آن‌ها برای انقیاد بخش‌هایی از اجتماع سود برده‌اند. از مهم‌ترین این عناصر می‌توان به سکوت، خشونت، جنون، هم‌‌جنس‌‌خواهی و ‌منطق‌‌ستیزی‌ اشاره‌ کرد. به همین سبب، نویسندگان مقاله این گفتمان را «گفتمان واساز» نامیده‌اند. به منظور نشان دادن چگونگی استفادۀ ابزاری زنان سیاه‌پوست از این گفتمان، رمان چشم‌هایشان خدا را می‌نگریست مورد تحلیل قرار می‌گیرد. در این اثر، بزرگ‌ترین اقدام‌ برانداز جِینی، قتل تی‌کیک، عاشق و آخرین همسر خود است که با آن جِینی به یک صدای مستقل و بی‌نیاز از مردان می‌رسد و در همین رابطه، سکوت جِینی به هنگام محاکمه توسط هیئت منصفه تماماً متشکل از مردان سفیدپوست اهمیت می‌یابد. این پژوهش با بهره‌گیری از واسازی و با تاکید بر ویژگی خرد‌ـ‌مرکز ‌محوری آن انجام شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Deconstructive Discourse in Their Eyes were Watching God

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad Reza Noorollahi 1
  • Sheedeh Ahmadzadeh 2

1 Islamic Azad University of Qom

2 Shahid Beheshti University

چکیده [English]

The present article studies the deconstructive discourse in Their Eyes were Watching God byZora NealeHurston, the first African-American female writer. Studies on some major Black feminist novels reveal that these women make discourse work against their oppression. A significant feature of African-American women’s discourse is the deconstruction of the logo-centric principles that for decades have deprived many minority groups of ‘voice’; therefore, to overthrow the logo-centric systematic, Black women in their discourse make use of elements that are negatively defined in that system by the dominant class. Of the major elements of this discourse, we can refer to: silence, violence, madness, lesbianism, irrationality, etc. As such, it is suggested that the discourse should be called ‘deconstructive discourse’. To demonstrate how Black women make strategic use of deconstructive discourse, Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God is studied in detail. In this novel Janie’s final act of subversion is the murdering of her lover and at the same time her last husband which sets her free from all patriarchal restrictions and prescriptions. Her silence in her subsequent trial in front of an all-white and all-male jury implies the insignificance of the white patriarchy.The present research has been conducted using deconstruction especially through its denial of any center. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deconstructive discourse
  • Logocentrism
  • African-American Literature
  • Zora Neale Hurston

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