Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 -University of Isfahan دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

مطالعه حاضر با الهام از زبان‌‌‌شناسی شناختی ‌و به‌‌ویژه نظریۀ‌ استعاره‌‌های مفهومی لیکاف و جانسون (1980)، تأثیر روش تفصیل ریشه‌‌ای‌ به عنوان یک روش تدریس صریح ‌که برگرفته از این مکتب است ‌را با روش‌های رایج دیگر تدریس واژگان تخصصی زبان انگلیسی با اهداف ویژه (اقتصاد) یعنی آموزش واژگان از طریق ارائۀ‌ معادل‌‌‌های فارسی، تعاریف انگلیسی و روش تدریس ضمنی را مقایسه کرد. یافته‌‌های پژوهش حاکی از برتری روش تفصیل ریشه‌‌ای‌ بر سایر روش‌ها و برتری تدریس صریح بر روش ضمنی است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Learning and Retention of Metaphor-based Economic Terms

نویسندگان [English]

  • Adeleh Heidari 1
  • Azizollah Dabaghi 2
  • Hossein Barati 2

1 University of Esfahan

2 University of Esfahan

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of explicit and implicit instruction on learning and retention of metaphor-based economic terms on the part of Iranian language learners of Economics. The participants were four intact parallel groups of 75 sophomores of Economics .Three groups were instructed through explicit instruction methods, that is, etymological elaboration, contextual definitions, and L1 translation, and one group through an implicit method of instruction. The results of the study indicated that in terms of learning, the participants in 'etymological elaboration' outperformed the other groups in the vocabulary test. They also showed that the participants in 'Contextual Definitions', 'Implicit Instruction' and 'Translation' groups did not perform significantly different from each other. Regarding retention, the test showed a significant difference between the means of the Etymological Elaboration Group, on one hand and Contextual Definition and Implicit Instruction groups, on the other hand. Similarly, the difference between the Implicit Instruction and Translation groups was statisticallysignificant. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • explicit and implicit instruction
  • metaphor-based terms
  • etymological elaboration

Bagheri, M. S. &Fazel, I. (2010).Effects of etymological elaboration on EFL learners’comprehension and retention of idioms. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 14(1), 45-55

Boers, F. (2000). Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied Linguistics, 21, 553–71.

Boers, F., & M. Demecheleer, M., (1998). A cognitive semantic approach to teaching prepositions. English for Language Teaching Journal, 52(3): 197-204.

Boers, F., M. Demecheleer& J. Eyckmans (2004). Etymological elaboration as a strategy for learning figurative idioms. In P. Bogaards& B. Laufer (eds.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition and testing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 53–78.

Boers, F., J. Eyckmans& H. Stengers (2007) Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of

etymology: More than mere mnemonics? Language Teaching Research, 11(1), 43-62.

CaballeroRodriguez, M. (2003). “How to talk shop through metaphor. Bringing metaphor research to the ESP classroom”. English for Specific Purposes 22: 177-194.

Charteris-Black, J. (2000). Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics. English for Specific Purposes 19, 149-165.

Charteris-Black, J. (2004). Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Charteris-Black, J., &Ennis,T. (2001). A comparative study of metaphor in Spanish and English financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 20(3), 249–266.

Charteris-Black, J., &Musolff, A. (2003). Battered hero or innocent victim? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 22(2), 153–176.

Clark, J. M., and Paivio. A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 233–262.

Coryell, L. J. (2012). The effectiveness of etymological elaboration as a method of teaching idioms. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Educational Theory and Practice. School of Education. University of Albany, State University of New York.

Danesi, M.(1993). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language

teaching: the neglected dimension. In J. E. Alatis (ed.), Language, and SocialMeaning.Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press. 489-500.

Deignan, A. (2005). Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Deignan, A., Gabrýs, D., &Solska.A(1997). Teaching English metaphors using cross-linguistic awareness-raising activities. ELT Journal, 51(4), 352–360.

Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty &J.Williams(Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197-261). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, N. (1994). Vocabulary acquisition: The implicit ins and outs of explicit cognitive mediation. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 21 1-282), Academic Press, Harcout Brace & Company, Publishers.

Ellis, N. (1995).Vocabulary acquisition: Psychological perspectives and pedagogical implications.The Language Teacher, 19(2), 12-15.

Ellis, R. (1997).Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gass, S. (1999).Incidental vocabulary learning: Discussion. Studies in Second Language, 21(2), 19-33.

Guo, S. (2007). Is idiom comprehension influenced by metaphor awareness of the learners? A case study of Chinese EFL learners. The Linguistics Journal, 3(3), 148–166.

Hashemian, M., &TalebiNezhad (2007). The development of conceptual fluency and metaphorical competence in l2 learners. Lingistik Online, 30(1), 41-56.

Henderson, W. (1994). Metaphor and economics. In R. E. Backhouse (Ed.),New Directions in Economic Methodology(pp. 343-367). London: Routledge.

Henderson, W. (1982). Metaphor in Economics. Economics 18, 147-153.

Herrera, H. & White, M. (2000). “Cognitive linguistics and the language learning process: a

case from Economics”. EstudiosIngleses de la Universidad Complutense 8, 55-78.

Hertege, C. &Popescu, T. (2013). Developing students` intercultural and collocational competence

through analyzing the business press. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 378-382.

Hulstijn, J. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal

of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second

languageinstruction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hulstijin, J &Laufer, B (2001) Some Empirical Evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in Vocabulary acquisition, Language Learning, 51(3 ), 539-558.

Hunt, A. &Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a

Foreign Language, 17(1), 23-59.

Jeffreys, D. (1982). Metaphor in economics—An illustrative appendix. Economics, 18(4), 154-157.

Krashen, S. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the

Input Hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, 440-462.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University ofChicago Press.

Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. (2004).Testing vocabulary knowledge: Size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning, 54(3), 399-436.

Laufer, B. &Hulstijn,J. H. (2001). ‘Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language:

The construct of task-induced involvement,’Applied Linguistics 22(1), 1–26.

Lindstromberg, S. (1991). Metaphor and ESP: A ghost in the machine? English for Specific Purposes, 10(3), 207–225.

Lindstromberg, S. & Boers. F. (2005). From movement to metaphor with manner-of-movement verbs. Applied Linguistics, 26(2), 241–261.

Littlemore, J. (2004). Item-based and cognitive-style-based variation in students’ abilities to use metaphoric extension strategies. Iberica, 7, 5–32.

Long, M. H. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? Areview of the research. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 359–382.

Low, G. D. (1988). ‘On teaching metaphor.’ Applied Linguistics 9(2), 125-147.

MacLennan, C. (1994). Metaphors and prototypes in the learning teaching of grammar and

vocabulary. IRAL, 32(2), 97–110.

Mata, T., &Lemercier. C. (2011). Speaking in tongues, a text analysis of economic opinion and Newsweek, 1975–2007 Duke University: hope CentreWorking Papers No.2011–02.

McCloskey, D. (1983). The rhetoric of economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 21, 481- 517.

McCloskey, D. N. (1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press

Meyer, M. (1991). Developing transcultural competence: Case studies of advanced language learners.In D. Buttjes& M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an

intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp. 136-158). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Nagy, W. (1997). The role of context in first- and second-language vocabularylearning. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy (pp. 64-83). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Nation, P., &Meara, P. (2002).Vocabulary. An introduction to applied linguistics, 35-54.

Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart &Winston.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Resche, C. (2012). Towards a better understanding of metaphorical networks in the language of economics: The importance of theory-constitutive metaphors. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphor and Mills: Figurative Language in Business and Economics (pp. 77-102). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

SavilleTroike, M. U. R. I. E. L. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement?. TESOL Quarterly, 18(2), 199-219.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning.Applied Linguistics, 2,

- 158.

Schmidt, R. (2001). ‘Attention’ in P. Robinson(ed.): Cognition and Second Language Instruction.

Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–32.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness-raising and second languageacquisition theory. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159–168..

Sznajder, H. S. (2010). A corpus- based evaluation of metaphor in a business English textbook.

English for Speciï‌c Purposes (2): 30–42.

White, M., (2003). Metaphor and economics: the case of growth. English for Speciï‌c Purposes (22), 131–15

Bagheri, M. S. &Fazel, I. (2010).Effects of etymological elaboration on EFL learners’comprehension and retention of idioms. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 14(1), 45-55

Boers, F. (2000). Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied Linguistics, 21, 553–71.

Boers, F., & M. Demecheleer, M., (1998). A cognitive semantic approach to teaching prepositions. English for Language Teaching Journal, 52(3): 197-204.

Boers, F., M. Demecheleer& J. Eyckmans (2004). Etymological elaboration as a strategy for learning figurative idioms. In P. Bogaards& B. Laufer (eds.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition and testing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 53–78.

Boers, F., J. Eyckmans& H. Stengers (2007) Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of

etymology: More than mere mnemonics? Language Teaching Research, 11(1), 43-62.

CaballeroRodriguez, M. (2003). “How to talk shop through metaphor. Bringing metaphor research to the ESP classroom”. English for Specific Purposes 22: 177-194.

Charteris-Black, J. (2000). Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics. English for Specific Purposes 19, 149-165.

Charteris-Black, J. (2004). Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Charteris-Black, J., &Ennis,T. (2001). A comparative study of metaphor in Spanish and English financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 20(3), 249–266.

Charteris-Black, J., &Musolff, A. (2003). Battered hero or innocent victim? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 22(2), 153–176.

Clark, J. M., and Paivio. A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 233–262.

Coryell, L. J. (2012). The effectiveness of etymological elaboration as a method of teaching idioms. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Educational Theory and Practice. School of Education. University of Albany, State University of New York.

Danesi, M.(1993). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language

teaching: the neglected dimension. In J. E. Alatis (ed.), Language, and SocialMeaning.Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press. 489-500.

Deignan, A. (2005). Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Deignan, A., Gabrýs, D., &Solska.A(1997). Teaching English metaphors using cross-linguistic awareness-raising activities. ELT Journal, 51(4), 352–360.

Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty &J.Williams(Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197-261). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, N. (1994). Vocabulary acquisition: The implicit ins and outs of explicit cognitive mediation. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 21 1-282), Academic Press, Harcout Brace & Company, Publishers.

Ellis, N. (1995).Vocabulary acquisition: Psychological perspectives and pedagogical implications.The Language Teacher, 19(2), 12-15.

Ellis, R. (1997).Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gass, S. (1999).Incidental vocabulary learning: Discussion. Studies in Second Language, 21(2), 19-33.

Guo, S. (2007). Is idiom comprehension influenced by metaphor awareness of the learners? A case study of Chinese EFL learners. The Linguistics Journal, 3(3), 148–166.

Hashemian, M., &TalebiNezhad (2007). The development of conceptual fluency and metaphorical competence in l2 learners. Lingistik Online, 30(1), 41-56.

Henderson, W. (1994). Metaphor and economics. In R. E. Backhouse (Ed.),New Directions in Economic Methodology(pp. 343-367). London: Routledge.

Henderson, W. (1982). Metaphor in Economics. Economics 18, 147-153.

Herrera, H. & White, M. (2000). “Cognitive linguistics and the language learning process: a

case from Economics”. EstudiosIngleses de la Universidad Complutense 8, 55-78.

Hertege, C. &Popescu, T. (2013). Developing students` intercultural and collocational competence

through analyzing the business press. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 378-382.

Hulstijn, J. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal

of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second

languageinstruction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hulstijin, J &Laufer, B (2001) Some Empirical Evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in Vocabulary acquisition, Language Learning, 51(3 ), 539-558.

Hunt, A. &Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a

Foreign Language, 17(1), 23-59.

Jeffreys, D. (1982). Metaphor in economics—An illustrative appendix. Economics, 18(4), 154-157.

Krashen, S. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the

Input Hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, 440-462.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University ofChicago Press.

Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. (2004).Testing vocabulary knowledge: Size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning, 54(3), 399-436.

Laufer, B. &Hulstijn,J. H. (2001). ‘Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language:

The construct of task-induced involvement,’Applied Linguistics 22(1), 1–26.

Lindstromberg, S. (1991). Metaphor and ESP: A ghost in the machine? English for Specific Purposes, 10(3), 207–225.

Lindstromberg, S. & Boers. F. (2005). From movement to metaphor with manner-of-movement verbs. Applied Linguistics, 26(2), 241–261.

Littlemore, J. (2004). Item-based and cognitive-style-based variation in students’ abilities to use metaphoric extension strategies. Iberica, 7, 5–32.

Long, M. H. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? Areview of the research. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 359–382.

Low, G. D. (1988). ‘On teaching metaphor.’ Applied Linguistics 9(2), 125-147.

MacLennan, C. (1994). Metaphors and prototypes in the learning teaching of grammar and

vocabulary. IRAL, 32(2), 97–110.

Mata, T., &Lemercier. C. (2011). Speaking in tongues, a text analysis of economic opinion and Newsweek, 1975–2007 Duke University: hope CentreWorking Papers No.2011–02.

McCloskey, D. (1983). The rhetoric of economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 21, 481- 517.

McCloskey, D. N. (1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press

Meyer, M. (1991). Developing transcultural competence: Case studies of advanced language learners.In D. Buttjes& M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an

intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp. 136-158). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Nagy, W. (1997). The role of context in first- and second-language vocabularylearning. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy (pp. 64-83). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Nation, P., &Meara, P. (2002).Vocabulary. An introduction to applied linguistics, 35-54.

Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart &Winston.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Resche, C. (2012). Towards a better understanding of metaphorical networks in the language of economics: The importance of theory-constitutive metaphors. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphor and Mills: Figurative Language in Business and Economics (pp. 77-102). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

SavilleTroike, M. U. R. I. E. L. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement?. TESOL Quarterly, 18(2), 199-219.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning.Applied Linguistics, 2,

- 158.

Schmidt, R. (2001). ‘Attention’ in P. Robinson(ed.): Cognition and Second Language Instruction.

Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–32.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness-raising and second languageacquisition theory. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159–168..

Sznajder, H. S. (2010). A corpus- based evaluation of metaphor in a business English textbook.

English for Speciï‌c Purposes (2): 30–42.

White, M., (2003). Metaphor and economics: the case of growth. English for Speciï‌c Purposes (22), 131–15

Bagheri, M. S. &Fazel, I. (2010).Effects of etymological elaboration on EFL learners’comprehension and retention of idioms. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 14(1), 45-55

Boers, F. (2000). Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied Linguistics, 21, 553–71.

Boers, F., & M. Demecheleer, M., (1998). A cognitive semantic approach to teaching prepositions. English for Language Teaching Journal, 52(3): 197-204.

Boers, F., M. Demecheleer& J. Eyckmans (2004). Etymological elaboration as a strategy for learning figurative idioms. In P. Bogaards& B. Laufer (eds.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition and testing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 53–78.

Boers, F., J. Eyckmans& H. Stengers (2007) Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of

etymology: More than mere mnemonics? Language Teaching Research, 11(1), 43-62.

CaballeroRodriguez, M. (2003). “How to talk shop through metaphor. Bringing metaphor research to the ESP classroom”. English for Specific Purposes 22: 177-194.

Charteris-Black, J. (2000). Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics. English for Specific Purposes 19, 149-165.

Charteris-Black, J. (2004). Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Charteris-Black, J., &Ennis,T. (2001). A comparative study of metaphor in Spanish and English financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 20(3), 249–266.

Charteris-Black, J., &Musolff, A. (2003). Battered hero or innocent victim? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 22(2), 153–176.

Clark, J. M., and Paivio. A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 233–262.

Coryell, L. J. (2012). The effectiveness of etymological elaboration as a method of teaching idioms. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Educational Theory and Practice. School of Education. University of Albany, State University of New York.

Danesi, M.(1993). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language

teaching: the neglected dimension. In J. E. Alatis (ed.), Language, and SocialMeaning.Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press. 489-500.

Deignan, A. (2005). Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Deignan, A., Gabrýs, D., &Solska.A(1997). Teaching English metaphors using cross-linguistic awareness-raising activities. ELT Journal, 51(4), 352–360.

Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty &J.Williams(Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197-261). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, N. (1994). Vocabulary acquisition: The implicit ins and outs of explicit cognitive mediation. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 21 1-282), Academic Press, Harcout Brace & Company, Publishers.

Ellis, N. (1995).Vocabulary acquisition: Psychological perspectives and pedagogical implications.The Language Teacher, 19(2), 12-15.

Ellis, R. (1997).Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gass, S. (1999).Incidental vocabulary learning: Discussion. Studies in Second Language, 21(2), 19-33.

Guo, S. (2007). Is idiom comprehension influenced by metaphor awareness of the learners? A case study of Chinese EFL learners. The Linguistics Journal, 3(3), 148–166.

Hashemian, M., &TalebiNezhad (2007). The development of conceptual fluency and metaphorical competence in l2 learners. Lingistik Online, 30(1), 41-56.

Henderson, W. (1994). Metaphor and economics. In R. E. Backhouse (Ed.),New Directions in Economic Methodology(pp. 343-367). London: Routledge.

Henderson, W. (1982). Metaphor in Economics. Economics 18, 147-153.

Herrera, H. & White, M. (2000). “Cognitive linguistics and the language learning process: a

case from Economics”. EstudiosIngleses de la Universidad Complutense 8, 55-78.

Hertege, C. &Popescu, T. (2013). Developing students` intercultural and collocational competence

through analyzing the business press. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 378-382.

Hulstijn, J. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal

of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second

languageinstruction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hulstijin, J &Laufer, B (2001) Some Empirical Evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in Vocabulary acquisition, Language Learning, 51(3 ), 539-558.

Hunt, A. &Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a

Foreign Language, 17(1), 23-59.

Jeffreys, D. (1982). Metaphor in economics—An illustrative appendix. Economics, 18(4), 154-157.

Krashen, S. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the

Input Hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, 440-462.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University ofChicago Press.

Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. (2004).Testing vocabulary knowledge: Size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning, 54(3), 399-436.

Laufer, B. &Hulstijn,J. H. (2001). ‘Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language:

The construct of task-induced involvement,’Applied Linguistics 22(1), 1–26.

Lindstromberg, S. (1991). Metaphor and ESP: A ghost in the machine? English for Specific Purposes, 10(3), 207–225.

Lindstromberg, S. & Boers. F. (2005). From movement to metaphor with manner-of-movement verbs. Applied Linguistics, 26(2), 241–261.

Littlemore, J. (2004). Item-based and cognitive-style-based variation in students’ abilities to use metaphoric extension strategies. Iberica, 7, 5–32.

Long, M. H. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? Areview of the research. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 359–382.

Low, G. D. (1988). ‘On teaching metaphor.’ Applied Linguistics 9(2), 125-147.

MacLennan, C. (1994). Metaphors and prototypes in the learning teaching of grammar and

vocabulary. IRAL, 32(2), 97–110.

Mata, T., &Lemercier. C. (2011). Speaking in tongues, a text analysis of economic opinion and Newsweek, 1975–2007 Duke University: hope CentreWorking Papers No.2011–02.

McCloskey, D. (1983). The rhetoric of economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 21, 481- 517.

McCloskey, D. N. (1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press

Meyer, M. (1991). Developing transcultural competence: Case studies of advanced language learners.In D. Buttjes& M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an

intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp. 136-158). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Nagy, W. (1997). The role of context in first- and second-language vocabularylearning. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy (pp. 64-83). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Nation, P., &Meara, P. (2002).Vocabulary. An introduction to applied linguistics, 35-54.

Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart &Winston.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Resche, C. (2012). Towards a better understanding of metaphorical networks in the language of economics: The importance of theory-constitutive metaphors. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphor and Mills: Figurative Language in Business and Economics (pp. 77-102). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

SavilleTroike, M. U. R. I. E. L. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement?. TESOL Quarterly, 18(2), 199-219.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning.Applied Linguistics, 2,

- 158.

Schmidt, R. (2001). ‘Attention’ in P. Robinson(ed.): Cognition and Second Language Instruction.

Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–32.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness-raising and second languageacquisition theory. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159–168..

Sznajder, H. S. (2010). A corpus- based evaluation of metaphor in a business English textbook.

English for Speciï‌c Purposes (2): 30–42.

White, M., (2003). Metaphor and economics: the case of growth. English for Speciï‌c Purposes (22), 131–15