Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی


1 دانشکده ادبیات، علوم انسانی و اجتماعی. دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات،تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن

3 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران


جستار حاضر به بررسی نظریه های استیون گرینبلت در باب بداهه پردازی قدرت و جباریت در پرتو نظریه آشوب از دیدگاه کاترین هیلز و گوردون سلیتاگ در نمایشنامه ریچارد سوم اثر ویلیام شکسپیر می پردازد تا شبکه پیچیده سلطه روانشناختی بر ذهن انسان را بر اساس همدلی از طریق سازوکارهای جا به جایی و جذب در ساختار نظم نمادین با افزایش یا کنترل آشوب مورد مطالعه قرار دهد. در نمایشنامه ریچارد سوم، فراز و نشیب‌ جباران، زیرساختهای گسترش جباریت و چگونگی بهره برداری جباران به ویژه ریچارد سوم از بداهه‌ پردازی قدرت برای کنترل دیگران در پیاده سازی نقشه‌های عمدتاً ماکیاولیستی واکاوی می‌شوند. ریچارد سوم نظم طبیعی تسلسل وجود را برهم می زند و در آشوب حاصله به کمک بداهه پردازی قدرت بر تخت سلطنت می نشیند. برای رسیدن به نظم ثانویه پایدار به جباریت روی می آورد که کارساز نمی افتد و در هزارتوی تاریک خویش گرفتار می آید.


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Interdisciplinary Research on the Improvisation of Power, Tyranny and Chaos in William Shakespeare's Richard III

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azita Zamani 1
  • Zahra Bordbari 2
  • Javad Yaghoobi Derabi 3

1 Department of Foreign Languages, IAU-Science and Research Branch. Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty Member of Roudehen Islamic Azad University

3 Department of English Literature, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

چکیده [English]

The present research examines Greenblatt's theories on the improvisation of power and tyranny in Shakespeare's play Richard III, considering Hayles and Slethaug's ideas of chaos theory. The focus is on the nonviolent psychological control achieved through empathy using displacement and absorption. The study explores how chaos is manipulated to establish a new order and analyzes how the tyrants, specifically Richard III, use it to employ oppressive strategies to dominate others. The consequences of disrupting the established order are also explored, as Richard III tries unsuccessfully to establish control through tyranny.

Background of Study
Scholars have analyzed Shakespeare's historical plays, adding depth to this essay. Edward Lorenz's chaos theory, explored by Catherine Hayles and Gordon Slethaug, provides an interdisciplinary viewpoint. Stephen Greenblatt's article "The Improvisation of Power" and his book Tyranny (Shakespeare and Politics) explore the connections between English autocracy and modern tyranny like Trumpism in Shakespeare's works. Slethaug 's Beautiful Chaos and Hayles' Chaos Bound explore contemporary American fiction and the relationship between literature, theory, and chaos science.

In Daniel Lerner's work "Passing from Traditional Society: Modernization of the Middle East," the development of empathy is discussed as a psychological skill in western societies, attributed to migration caused by war and famine. Stephen Greenblatt expands on this concept in his idea of power improvisation, which highlights the destructive potential of empathy. The improvisation of power involves pursuing a goal while adapting tactics based on the current situation, psychologically dominating the target through displacement and absorption. Greenblatt's work Tyrant (Shakespeare and Politics) explores the relationship between Shakespeare's plays and the political climate of Renaissance England, focusing on the rise and fall of tyrants and the role of the people. The research also explores chaos theory, which uncovers hidden patterns in seemingly random sequences, applicable in both scientific and literary contexts.

The essay delves into the consequences of the improvisation of power and tyranny on hierarchical relationships and political equations, utilizing the theories proposed by Stephen Greenblatt. It analyzes the manner in which the improvisation of power can reorganize and reconstruct identities in Shakespeare's historical plays, emphasizing the significance of psychological dynamics and empathy. Shakespeare's authentic depiction of characters captivates readers, challenging the established historical narratives through the improvisation of power at another level. The essay also examines the impact of Catholic religious fundamentalism during the Middle Ages, acknowledging its role in the improvisation of power. The presence of dual centers of power creates a psychological duality within the characters. By harnessing chaos to their advantage, power improvisation has the potential to disrupt governmental systems and manipulate existing orders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Absorption
  • Chaos
  • Displacement
  • Empathy
  • The Improvisation of Power
  • Tyrant
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