Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی


1 گروه زبان و ادبیات اتگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبانها، دانشگاه اراک،اراک، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان‌ها، دانشگاه اراک، ایران


این مطالعة اکتشافی با رویکردی توصیفی، کیفی، و بر اساس نظریة انسجام به بررسی نظام ایجاد انسجام در گفتمان و مدیریت گفتمان دو نویسنده حرفه‌ای فارسی و انگلیسی در آفرینش گفتمان ادبی در چارچوب تحلیل گفتمان تطبیقی و بر اساس نمونه‌گیری هدف‌مند پرداخته‌است. برای رسیدن به این هدف، توزیع فراوانی، نوع، و نقش‌های منظورشناختی گفتمان‌نماها در متون ادبی "مدیر مدرسه" اثر جلال آل احمد و "پیرمرد و دریا" اثر همینگوی تحلیل و بررسی گردید. تحلیل این پیکره‌های موازی نشان داد که آفرینش روابط گفتمانی بین واحدهای گفتمان بر اساس یک الگوی چهار‌وجهی متشکل از چهار گروه گفتمان‌نمای استنباطی، تقابلی، تفصیلی، و توالی انجام شده بود. علاوه بر این، تحلیل نقش‌های منظورشناختی این عناصر گفتمان‌شناختی منجر کشف یک منظومه طیف نقشی هفت‌وجهی برای گفتمان‌نماها در این متون ادبی گردید. این فرآیند خلاق، انعطاف‌پذیر، و سیال در آفرینش و تفسیر گفتمان تحت تاثیر نظریة فراگفتمانی کاربردی‌شدگی به وجود می‌آید و زمینة پیدایش استنباطات جدید، خلاق، و حساس نسبت به بافت کاربردی زبان در نقش‌های منظور‌شناختی گفتمان‌نماها ایجاد می‌کند که دائماً در حال تغییر، تحول، و نوآوری منظورشناختی می‌باشند. کاربردهای آموزشی مختلفی در گستره‌های آموزش ادبیات، زبان، و برخی از مهارت‌های زبانی بحث و بررسی و پیشنهاد گردید.


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of Discourse Monitoring System in two Persian and English Literary Works Based on Comparative Discourse Analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Mohammad Mohammadi 1
  • Morteza Abdoli 2

1 Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Languages, Arak University< Arak, Iran

2 Department of English, Faculty of Literature and Languages, Arak university, Arak, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Comparative discourse analysis is a branch of linguistics focusing on comparative study of languages, cultures, and discourses in terms of similar linguistic and metalinguistic variables in the construction and monitoring of discourse (Linha, 2022). Monitoring discourse is the analysis of strategies in planning, distribution, production, and utilization of language to create coherence and relevance between units of discourse by the creative, innovative, and flexible way of application of discourse markers (DMs) in human communication (Mohammadi and Dehghan, 2021). This explorative, descriptive, and qualitative study analyzed coherence relations in “Modire Madreseh” by Jalal Aleahmad and “The Old Man and The Sea by Hemingway.
Background: DMs are the most frequent, complex, and creative meta-linguistic elements in human communication (Sayadkooh and Reisi, 2017). Their utilization in discourse is not random and they perform different cultural social and pragmatic functions facilitating human communication (Fraser, 2006). Theoretically, DMs are defined and analyzed from two perspectives: relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) and coherence theory by Glansberg (2018). And the assumptions include: all text possess coherence, there are different types of coherence relations in texts, and these coherence relations should be discovered by the people in discourse. Approaching DMs functionally, Redeker (2006) believes that DMs’ main function is establishing relationship between units of discourse. From a semantic perspective, Fraser (2006) analyzed DMs at sentence level and believes that they establish the relationship between messages in the former, present, and latter sentences. Aijmer (2013) concludes that DMs do not possess fixed lexical functions and their functions are contexts-dependent and context-sensitive resulting in different functions in discourse. Empirically, DMs are investigated in different languages skills such as writing, speaking, listening and translation by different investigators.
Methodology: This exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study analyze coherence relations in two Persian and English literary works. Theoretically the study was supported by coherence theory in discourse analysis and the following analysis models established within this theoretical perspective: DMs inventory developed by Fraser (2006) and DMs functional inventory by Brinton (1996). Coherence theory centers around the appropriacy of concepts in terms of their relationship in the context of discourse. The corpus consisted of the following two Persian and English novels: “Modire Madreseh” by Jalal Aleahmad and “The Old Man and The Sea by Hemingway and these novels where selected due to the similar literary genre, similar readability levels, and close date of publication in two literary discourses. Moreover, to verify the reliability of the findings 20% the data were given to two raters to verify the researchers’ identification and classification of DMs and their functions.
Conclusion: The results of the quantitative analysis revealed that the construction of coherence relations between units of discourse was substantiated based on a four plane framework established by four groups of inferential, elaborative, contrastive, and temporal DMs in monitoring discourse. And the most frequent DMs were elaborative DMs. The qualitative analysis of the pragmatic functions of DMs applied in these literary works resulted in the following seven plane spectrum of functions for DMs: information indication, temporality, topic switch, opening markers, closing markers, turn exchange, and reform markers. This creative, flexible, and innovative approach in the construction and interpretation of discourse is substantiated through the application of pragmaticalization. So, new, creative, and context sensitive inferences about functions are substantiated for DMs and they are always being renewed, modified, and innovated substantially. Different implications in different research and educational perspectives about teaching literature, language, and different languages skills are suggested and discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Monitoring
  • Comparative
  • Discourse
  • Analysis
  • Literary
  • Works
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