Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 کارشناس ارشد زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

این جستار بر آن است که نمودها و تاثیرهای مختلف مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست را براساس نظریه‌های گایاتری اسپیوَک و هومی بابا، که بیشتر از دیگر منتقدین مطالعات فرهنگی به این موضوع پرداخته‌اند، در شخصیت‌‌های اصلی رمان همنام اثر جومپا لاهیری بررسی نماید. یکی از موضوع‌های محوری و حائزاهمیت در نقد مطالعات فرهنگی و ادبیات پسااستعماری، که در دهه‌های اخیر بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌است، مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست است. پرسش‌های بنیادین این مقاله عبارت‌اند ‌‌از: آیا می‌توان عناصر و مولفه‌هایی که بر مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست دلالت می‌کنند را در رمان همنام مشاهده نمود؟ واکنش شخصیت‌های اصلی رمان همنام در قبال تلقی ‌‌شدن به‌عنوان دیگری و فرودست چیست؟ برای پاسخ‌ دادن به این پرسش‌ها، مصادیق دیگری‌فرودست در رفتار، هویت و تعاملات اجتماعی آشیما (شخصیت اصلی نسل اول) و گوگول (شخصیت اصلی نسل دوم) و همچنین راهکارهای خودآگاه و ناخودآگاه این دو شخصیت برای رهایی از فرودستی و دیگری ‌انگاشته ‌شدن و نیز خلق هویتی هم‌تراز تحلیل می‌شوند. این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که در رمان همنام، مهاجرت نه‌تنها بر هویت مهاجران نسل اول، بلکه بر هویت فرزندان آن‌ها نیز تاثیر می‌گذارد. لاهیری فرودست بودن آشیما را در ازدواجِ ازپیش‌‌‌تعیین‌‌‌شده، وابستگی به خانواده و همسر، بارداری و مهاجرت و فرودستی گوگول را در نام و دوستی‌اش با سفیدپوستان آمریکایی به ‌‌تصویر می‌کشد. آشیما که درابتدا تمایلی به پذیرش فرهنگ غربی ندارد، به‌‌تدریج به فرهنگ آمریکایی گرایش پیدا می‌کند. از سوی دیگر، گوگول که همواره از هویت اصلی خود گریزان است، با گذشت زمان به فرهنگ هندی علاقه‌مند می‌شود. همچنین، این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که هویت‌های پیوند‌خورده و دوسویه‌‌ باعث خلق صدایی برای افراد دیگری و فرودست می‌گردند و حس قدرت و تعلق به آنان می‌بخشند، به‌گونه‌ای که در بستر فرهنگی جدید، خودی و همسان می‌شوند.

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of the Concept of the Subaltern in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Farahbakhsh 1
  • Rezvaneh Ranjbar Sheykhani 2

1 Associate Professor in English Language and Literature, University of Guilan

2 M. A. Holder in English Language and Literature, University of Guilan

چکیده [English]

This article aims to investigate the different effects of the concept of the subaltern in the major characters of Lahiri’s The Namesake in terms of Gayatri Spivak and Homi Bhabha’s theories. One of the important and central issues in cultural studies and postcolonial literature, which has received much attention in the recent decades, is the notion of the subaltern. The central questions of the article are: Can the components associated with the concept of the subaltern be traced in The Namesake? How do the main characters react to their portrayal as ‘the other’ and ‘the inferior’? Do they manage to ‘speak’ and construct an identity that negates ‘otherness’ and ‘inferiority’? To answer the questions, manifestations of the concept of the subaltern are analyzed in the demeanor, identity and social interactions of Ashima (the main character of the first generation) and Gogol (the main character of the second generation). Ashima and Gogol’s conscious and unconscious strategies for liberation from subalternity and creation of a socially equal identity are also explored. The article shows that in The Namesake, immigration affects not only the identity of the first generation immigrants but also the identity of their children. Subalternity is discernible in Ashima’s arranged marriage, her sheer dependence on her family and husband, pregnancy, immigration and also in Gogol’s name and his relationships with white Americans. Ashima, who initially rejects the Western culture, gradually comes to appreciate it and adapt herself to it. Also, Gogol who always shunned his true identity and cultural roots, in time takes interest in Indian culture. The article also indicates that hybrid and ambivalent identities create a voice for subalterns and give them a sense of power and belonging, so much so that they become ‘the self’ (in contrast with ‘the other’) in the new cultural context.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cultural studies
  • Postcolonial Reading
  • Subaltern
  • identity
  • Immigration
  • hybridity
  • ambivalence

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, editors. The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 1995.

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. London: Routledge, 1998.

Barker, Chris. The SAGE Dictionary of Cultural Studies. London: SAGE Publications, 2004.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Bhalla, Tamara. “Being (and Feeling) Gogol: Reading and Recognition in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” MELUS: Multi-Ethnic Literature of the U.S., vol. 37, no. 1, 2012, pp. 105-129.

Bhatt, Mahesh Bharatkumar. “Struggle to Acculturate in The Namesake: A Comment on Jhumpa Lahiri’s Work as Diaspora Literature.” IMDS Working Paper Series, no. 18, 2009, pp. 37-49.

Bran, Ramona-Alice. Immigration: ‘A Lifelong Pregnancy’? An Analysis of Jhumpa Lahiri’s Fiction. PhD dissertation. Technical University of Dortmund, 2014.

Caesar, Judith. “Gogol’s Namesake: Identity and Relationships in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Atenea, vol. 27, no. 1, 2007, pp. 103-119.

Chaudhry, Anju. “A Critical Analysis of Identity Crisis in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL), vol. 4, no. 4, 2016, pp. 205-209.

Concilio, Carmen. “From West Bengal to New York: The Global Novels of Jhumpa Lahiri and Kiran Desai.” Urban Cultures of/in the United States: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Andrea Carosso, Burn: Peter Lang, 2010, pp. 87-120.

Cox, Michael W. “Interpreters of Cultural Difference: The Use of Children in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Short Fiction.” South Asian Review, vol. 24, no. 2, 2003, pp. 120-132.

Dalton-Brown, Sally. “The Freedom of the Inbetween: Gogol’s Ghost and Jhumpa Lahiri’s Immigrants.” Forum for Modern Language Studies, vol. 47, no. 3, 2011, pp. 332-344.

Darzinejad, Ensiyeh, and Leyla Baradaran Jamili. “The performative Subjectivity of Muslim Women in the Diasporic Discourse of Leila Aboulela.” Journal of Critical Language and Literary Studies, vol, 14, no. 18, Spring and Summer 2017, pp. 59-85.

Dasgupta, Sanjukta. “Reading Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake: Reviewing the Russian Connection.” Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, vol. 3, no. 4, 2011, pp. 530-544.

De, Aparajita. “What’s In a Name? Tropes of Belonging and Identity in The Namesake.” South Asian Review, vol. 28, no. 2, 2007, pp. 182-200.

Ehn, Billy, and Orvar Löfgren. The Secret World of Doing Nothing. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Farahbakhsh, Alireza, and Rezvaneh Ranjbar Sheykhani. “Homi K. Bhabha’s Concept of Ambivalence in J. M. Coetzee’s Disgrace.” Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, vol. 26, no. 2, 2018, pp. 859-872.

Friedman, Natalie. “From Hybrids to Tourists: Children of Immigrants in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, vol. 50, no. 1, 2008, pp. 111-128.

Gandhi, Leela. Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Introduction. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1998.

Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, edited by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey N. Smith, New York: International Publishers, 1992.

Griffiths, Gareth. “The Myth of Authenticity.” The Post-Colonial Studies Reader, edited by Bill Ashcroft et al., London: Routledge, 1995, pp. 237-241.

Guerin, Wilfred L., et al. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Guha, Rajdeep. Family Relationships in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake and Kiran Desai’s The Inheritance of Loss. MA thesis. The University of Otago, 2012.

Guha, Ranajit. Subaltern Studies: Writings on South Asian History and Society. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Habib, M. A. R. A History of Literary Criticism and Theory: From Plato to the Present. Malden: Blackwell, 2005.

Hamilton, Geoff, and Brian Jones. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Writers and Their Work. New York: Facts on File, 2010.

Haque, Farhana. “Contestation and Negotiation of Gogol’s Life Regarding His Hybrid Identity in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” American Research Journal of English and Literature, 2016, pp. 1-7.

Joshi, Suchita. “The Namesake: Account of a Name, Looking for Its Bearer.” Indian Women Novelists in English, edited by P. D. Bheda, New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2005, pp. 84-121.

Kasun, Genna Welsh. Womanism and the Fiction of Jhumpa Lahiri. MA thesis. The University of Vermont, 2009.

Kiruba, J. Blessin. “Immigrant Experiences in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake and Kiran Desai’s The Inheritance of Loss.” Language in India, vol. 18, no. 1, 2018, pp. 136-147.

Lahiri, Himadri. “Individual-Family Interface in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Americana: E-Journal of American Studies in Hungary, vol. 4, no. 2, 2008, pp. 286-273.

Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake. Translated by Amir Mahdi Haghighat, Tehran: Mahi, 2005.

Lahiri-Roy, Reshmi. “Reconciling Identities: The Diasporic Bengali Woman in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Transnational Literature, vol. 7, no. 2, 2015, pp. 1-10.

Lakshmi. C. M. “Coinciding Sisyphean Condition with Expatriation: Exploring the Existential Crisis of Gogol in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” International Journal of Linguistics and Communication, vol. 1, no. 1, 2013, pp. 25-27.

Leyda, Julia. “An Interview with Jhumpa Lahiri.”Contemporary Women’s Writing, vol. 5, no. 1, 2011, pp. 66-83.

Loomba, Ania. Colonialism-postcolonialism. London: Routledge, 2000.

Louai, El Habib. “Retracing the Concept of the Subaltern from Gramsci to Spivak: Historical Developments and New Applications.” African Journal of History and Culture, vol. 4, no. 1, 2012, pp. 4-8.

Madhukar, Gore Mangesh. Reflection of Diasporic Sensibility in the Writings of Jhumpa Lahiri. PhD dissertation. Pune University, 2015.

Mani, Bakirathi. “Novel/Cinema/Photo: Intertextual Readings of The Namesake”. Naming Jhumpa Lahiri: Canons and Controversies, edited by Lavina Dhingra and Floyd Cheung, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012, pp. 75-97.

Mary, S. Alphonsa, and V. Peruvalluthi. “Identity and Cultural Conflict in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Indo-Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, vol. 1, no. 5, 2015, pp. 424-427.

Mcleod, John. Beginning Postcolonialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.

Mishra, Binod. “A Reading of Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Cyber Literature: International Online Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, 2010, pp. 1-9.

Moore-Gilbert, Bart. Postcolonial Theory: Contexts, Practices, Politics. London: Verso, 2000.

Munos, Delphine. “The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri: The Accident of Inheritance.” Commonwealth: Essays and Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, 2008, pp. 106-117.

Nayar, Pramod K. The Postcolonial Studies Dictionary.Chichester: Wiley, 2015.

Nojoumian, Amir Ali, and Bahareh Bahmanpour. “A Haunted Narrative: Signifying Trauma of Displacement in Lahiri’s Trilogy of ‘Hema and Kaushik’ in her Unaccustomed Earth.” Journal of Critical Language and Literary Studies, vol. 14, no. 19, Autumn and Winter 2017, pp. 77-97.

O’Sullivan, Tim., et al. Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 1994.

Parry, Benita. “Problems in Current Theories of Colonial Discourse.” Oxford Literary Review, vol. 9, no. 1, 1987, pp. 27-58.

Patil, Jyoti. “Enigma of Cultural Interface: A Study of Diasporic Experiences in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Contemporary Fiction: An Anthology of Female Writers, edited by Vandana Pathak, et al., New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2008, pp. 143-155.

Puttaiah, Venkatesh. “Paradoxes of Generational Breaks and Continuity inJhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Asiatic, vol. 6, no. 1, 2012, pp. 84-94.

Raj, Sony J., and Soumya Jose. “Diasporic Ambivalence in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Indian Writing in English: Critical Insights, edited by Bijender Singh, New Delhi: Authorspress, 2014, pp. 26-37.

Ranjbar Sheykhani, Rezvaneh. “A Postcolonial Reading of J. M. Coetzee’s Foe and Disgrace.” MA thesis. University of Guilan, 2017.

Sahni, Yogita. “Sense of Belonging in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 19, no. 1, 2014, pp. 13-19.

Shankar, Lavina Dhingra. “Not Too Spicy: Exotic Mistresses of Cultural Translation in the Fiction of Chitra Divakaruni and Jhumpa Lahiri.” Other tongues: Rethinking the Language Debates in India, edited by Nalini Iyerand Bonnie Zare, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009, pp. 23-52.

Shariff, Farha. “Straddling the Cultural Divide: Second-Generation South Asian Identity and The Namesake.” Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education, vol. 15, no. 4, 2008, pp. 457-466.

Song, Min Hyoung. “The Children of 1965: Allegory, Postmodernism, and Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake.” Twentieth Century Literature, vol. 53, no. 3, 2007, pp. 345-370.

Spivak, G. Ch. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, edited by Carry Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, London: Macmillan Education, 1988, pp. 271-313.

Srivastava, Prem. “Literature still matters! The Namesake: Woman reads Woman.” Contemporary Fiction: An Anthology of Female Writers, edited by Vandana Pathak, et al., Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2008, pp. 28-48.

Young, Robert. White Mythologies: Writing History and the West. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2004.