Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، واحد تهران مرکز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران،

2 گروه زبان انگلیسی،دانشگاه ارشاد دماوند، تهران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به بررسی سازوکارهای ایدئولوژی فرهنگی حکومت لویی آلتوسر در رمان چشم‌چرانی می‌پردازد و سعی دارد نشان دهد آیا رمان در خدمت پیشبرد ایدئولوژی است یا قصد مقابله با آن را دارد. با توجه به این واقعیت که آلتوسر ادبیات را سازوکاری ایدئولوژیک می‌داند و فرانتس فانون نیز از آن به‌عنوان نیرویی رهایی‌بخش در راستای تغییر و تحول نام می‌برد، این مقاله چشم‌چرانی را نبردگاهی برای بحث در مورد این دو دیدگاه متضاد در نظر می‌گیرد. چون رمان رید با جایگاه فرهنگ و ادبیات در جامعه آمریکا سروکار دارد، اهمیت این تحقیق در آن نهفته است که رمان به‌عنوان مؤلفه‌ای فرهنگی چگونه می‌تواند سازوکارهای غالب تولید فرهنگ را افشا کند و آن‌ها را به چالش بکشاند. در این مقاله سعی بر آن است به جنبه‌های پرداخته شود که رید به افشاسازی گفتمان غالب فرهنگی و ایدئولوژی جامعه آمریکا می‌پردازد و آن‌ها را به چالش می‌کشاند. یافته‌های این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که رمان چشم‌چرانی نه‌تنها ایدئولوژی جهان‌شمول آلتوسر را به چالش می‌کشد بلکه تا حد زیادی با باورهای فرانتس فانون همخوانی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An Expository Criticism of Ishmael Reed’s Reckless Eyeballing: Ideological or Emancipating Power of Literature

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Ahmadi 1
  • Azita Aryan 2
  • Negar Sharif 1

1 English Language and Literature Dept., Tehran Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 English Language and Literature Department, Ershad Damavand University, Tehran

چکیده [English]

IntroductionAlthusser's superiority in twentieth-century philosophy is due to his refined definition of ideology. He provides another foundation for Marxist philosophy and he considers it as a science leading  to historical materialism; thus, Althusser's definition of ideology leads to the argument that capitalist societies of discourse have two distinct forms of discourse.Background StudiesPost-colonial literature in general is one of the most prominent theoretical topics and approaches in literary research within the country. However, Ishmael Reed is a lesser-known figure than his global fortune. The only article to read one of Reed's works is "Identity Transmigration Through History: The Post-Structuralist Reading of Mambo Jumbo's Novel by Ishmael Reed" by Bakhtiar Sajjadi and Somayeh Ghorbani, published in the Journal of Foreign Language and Literature Criticism. Mambo reads Jumbo according to Hayden White's views and his post-structuralist definition of history. Argument and MethodReckless Eyeballing (2000) was published fourteen years after Mambo's Jumbo novel. Both novels are mainly about exposing the hidden layers of American society's ideology. Reed was heavily criticized for criticizing feminism in major parts of the work, calling it anti-feminist. Reed says of the multilayers of these texts: "[Feminists] complain about Thermnischa Smartes for why he leaves New York for California in the final part of the story to become a kid and write, write and write." Of course, this is not in line with the goals of the new generation of feminists because they believe that they can own everything, including family and work. ” When Reed lets the term "radical have everything" as a radical feminist, he actually acquits himself on charges of being anti-feminist. This acquittal, while at the same time a clear attempt to criticize feminism, is a clear indication that a single interpretation of the novel is impossible. ConclusionReed reacts frankly to the dominant discourse of his time. In Reckless Eyeballing novel, he aims the cultral ideology to show how literature has become a tool for the ruling class instead of expressing aesthetic values. Reed mentions  the names of writers such as Eugene O'Neill, Ralph Eliessen, and Zora Neil Hurston, in order to express the intentions of using allegorical or metaphorical tools, therefore it becomes the undisputed spokesman for the American cultural community. He clearly informs the reader that the author must adapt to the ruling class and the Jews in order to gain a place in American literary society. Throughout the story we see that among black men only Schubert who submits to Jewish supporters can succeed in his career. Meanwhile, Smartes has allied himself with another powerful supporter, white feminism. Reed, in fact, clearly believes that literary success is the result of timely satisfaction with political and social circles. This is also the case with Ian Ball, whose incessant search for a female supporter actually reflects his quest for fame and success. The candid and honest exposition of the ideological mechanism of culture, referring to the real and real people of its time, makes the eye more of an "exemplary literature" than a "cultural ideological mechanism". The novel becomes a tool for change because of the revelation of the ideological discourse of its time, and it distances itself from becoming a tool for promoting the values of the ruling class.

Eagleton, Terry (2008). Literary Theory: An Introduction. University of Minnesota Press.

Althusser, Louis (1971). Lenin and philosophy (B. Brewster, Trans.). New York: Monthly.

Fanon, Frantz (2007). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.

Nayar, Pramod (2013). Routledge Critical Thinkers: Frantz Fanon. Routledge: London and New York.

Reed, Ishmael (2000). The Reed Reader. New York, NY: Basic Books.

McGee, Patrick (1997). Ishmael Reed and the Ends of Race. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Šalamoun, Jiři (2012). “Erasing the binary oppositions (?): the position of women characters in Ishmael Reed's Japanese by Spring.” Theory and Practice in English Studies, vol. 5, issue. 1, pp. [1]-13.

Werlock, Abby HP, ed. (2006). The Facts on File Companion to the American Novel. New York: Facts on File.

Goffman, Ethan (2012). Imagining Each Other: Blacks and Jews in Contemporary American Literature. Albany: SUNY Press.

Reed, Ishmael (2000). Reckless eyeballing. London: Dalkey Archive Press.

Reed, Ishmael (1988). Writin' is Fightin'. New York: Atheneum.

Punday, Daniel (1992). “Ishmael Reed’s Rhetorical Turn: Uses of ‘Signifying’ in Reckless Eyeballing.” College English, 54.4: 446-461.

Scott, Lynn Orilla (2004). “Ishmael Reed.” in Jay Parini (ed.) The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gubar, Susan (2000). Critical Condition: Feminism at the Turn of the Century. New York: Columbia University Press.

Farshid Sima, Elaheh Rezaei (2013) “The Role of Ideology in Protecting the Capitalist System in the Novels of Aricks and Creek and the Year of the Flood by Margaret Atwood”, Critical Language and Literary Studies. vol.5,Issue. 2. pp [1]-12.

Sadati Seyed Shohab Al Din, Ali Reza Jafari (2017) “Ideology and Recall of the American Black Community in Amiri Baraka's "Remembering the Radio" Poetry: Althusseri Reading”, Critical Language and Literary Studies. Vol.19. Issue.14, pp.[1]-16.