موضوع مقاله حاضر تاثیر حافظ بر فدریکو گارسیا لورکا یکی از بزرگترین شعرای اسپانیایی است. این پژوهش ابتدا در گذر مختصری از معرفی این دو شاعر خواننده را با چارچوب فکری و سبک ادبی لورکا آشنا میسازد و چگونگی آشنایی او را با حافظ از طریق ترجمههایی که از دیوان در اسپانیا انجام شده، نشان می دهد. در بخش دیگری از مقاله برای اثبات تاثیرحافظ بر لورکا گفته هایی از خود شاعر و دوستان نزدیک او نقل قول میشوند؛ و در آخر با تطبیق نمونههایی از اشعار این دو شاعر میزان تاثیر لورکا از حافظ مورد ارزیابی قرار میگیرد. تاثیر پذیری لورکا از حافظ نه تنها از طریق کاربرد مضامین، آرایههای ادبی و مهارت در بازی های فوقالعاده ظریف و گاه ناپیدای با کلمات می باشد، بلکه همچنین این تاثیردرچارچوب فکری او نیز به چشم میخورد. بررسی این مقاله نشان میدهد این شاعر اسپانیایی برای خلق برخی از آثار خود بخصوص "دیوان تاماریت" از حافظ الهام گرفته، از عناصر"دیوان حافظ" بهره جسته و به تقلید از اواشعار این کتاب را در قالب غزل و قصیده سروده وعنوان کتابش را دیوان نام نهاده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Manifestation of Hafez's Divan on Lorca's Poems
Hafez is one of the most brilliant literary figures in the world, who has crossed the boundaries of space and time due to the characteristics of his poems, and his poems have been translated into almost all languages. The full version of the Divan has long been published in the West. In fact, today Hafez's literature is considered a part of the basic and classical literature of the world. After the first translations of the Divan, this poet became a source of inspiration for many western and eastern writers and poets. Among these writers and poets is Federico Garcia Lorca, a famous Spanish poet. In this study, which indicates the presence of Hafez's Divan in Spain, an attempt is made through documents and matching some of Hafez’s poems with Lorca’s to prove the claim that this Spanish poet was inspired by Hafez to create his poetic works and to use the elements of the Divan in his poems.
Keywords: Hafez, Garcia Lorca, Divan, Spain, Comparative Literature
In an article entitled "Hafiz and his Critics", Annemarie Schimmel states that for the first time in 1650 Pietro Della Valle who was an Italian tourist mentioned Hafiz in his travel reports. However, it is said that the Germans were the first to discover the great Persian poet and introduce him to the Western world through the translation of the Divan’s poems.
In the West, Goethe's interest and admiration for Hafez prompted him to write his own Divan called “West- Eastern Divan”Perhaps one of the ways in which Garcia Lorca became acquainted with Hafez is through this source.
Although, the world got to know Hafez's poems after seventeenth century, but his poems arrived in Spain later than other European countries. There, too, through indirect translations, he had a significant impact on some of the poets of Spain.
Method and Discussion
We know that poetry as a literary genre is an aesthetic experience and needs to be interpreted. Persian poetry is known as a very rich literature that has rhythm and music. When dealing with classical poetry, the subject becomes more complex. Hafiz’s work essentially represents music that is related to beauty, an aesthetic that seeks to move away from the ordinary and requires great attention.
In this article, through the influence of one of the greatest poets of Spain, Persian literature in Spain is studied. Many researches have been done on Hafez and Lorca's poems so far, but yet no documents indicate Lorca's acquaintance with Hafez.
Undoubtedly, Lorca became acquainted with Hafez through translations of Divan made by some famous Spanish writer or translator and thus was able to discover common thoughts and feelings between Hafez and himself; that is why it is possible to compare the poems of this Spanish poet with the poems of Hafez and look for commonalities in terms of themes and aesthetics.
By comparing some of Lorca's poems with Hafez, we find that some of the themes that Hafez used in his poems have also infiltrated Lorca's poems and, willingly or unwillingly, have given an oriental mood to his poetry.
By comparing Lorca's poems, especially the poems of Poem of the Deep Song and Gypsy Ballads with the poems of Hafez's divan, the same themes used in both works can be extracted; In the divan of these two Eastern and Western poets, where many difficult and difficult terms and meanings have been used, a mysticism can be sought that in order to reveal and understand these concepts, one must first reach the deep thoughts of the poet. There are many metaphors in their poems, in other words, these two poets have played with so many words that the phenomenon of language complexity can be clearly felt in their poetry.