Critical Language and Literary Studies

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی


استادیار دانشگاه کاشان



مقالۀ حاضر به بررسی ساختارهای (پسا)سراسربینی و ارتباط آن با پدیدۀ مهاجرت در عصر حاضر می­پردازد. نویسنده با استفاده از رویکرد مطالعات فرهنگی و بهره­گیری از نظریات منتقدانی نظیر فوکو و لیون و تمرکز بر موضوعاتی نظیر کمپ، پارادایم تفکیک و جامعۀ «نظارتی» و «کنترلی» در­پی پاسخ به این پرسش بنیادی است که چگونه فرار اقلیت مهاجر به غرب جهت رهایی از انواع ساختارهای نظارتی اجتماع (community) خود به تجربۀ ساختارهای نظارتی شدیدتری در غرب منجر شده است؟ بدین منظور کتاب فرار به غرب (2017) نوشتۀ محسن حمید، نویسندۀ معاصر پاکستانی بررسی می­شود تا با تمرکز بر ساختارهای نظارتی نوین به چگونگی نقش آنها در شکل­گیری «بردگی جغرافیایی»، « نژادپرستی بدون نژاد» و «حیات برهنه» در عصر حاضر بپردازد. با وجود این امر چنین استدلال می­شود که درهم ­شکسته شدن مرزهای جغرافیایی و فرهنگی-- علی­رغم تلاش­ خشونت­آمیز غرب در حفظ یکپارچگی فرهنگی خود در قالب کمپ­ و ساختارهای پساسراسربین—می­تواند نوع متفاوتی از حس تعلق را رقم زند که به جای آنکه بر «ریشه» و خاک استوار باشد مبتنی بر نوعی سیالیت است که قادر است هر فضایی را به «خانه» تبدیل کند و در نتیجه نوعی «دگرجایی» را به جای ویران­شهر برای اقلیت مهاجر رقم زند.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Panopticism or Post- Panopticism, that is the Question: As an Other, One can never Leave

نویسنده [English]

  • Zahra Taheri

University of Kashan

چکیده [English]

This article focuses on the notions of pan-opticism and post-panopticism and their effects on migrants’ lives in the current era in Exit West (2017), the acclaimed work of Pakistani writer, Mohsin Hamid, through the perspective of left thinkers. Using Foucault’s and Lyon’s views, the writer tries to discuss how the exit of the migrants from the panoptic, disciplinary communities of theirs to the so-called democratic West can prove a failure when they have to end up in a panoptic camp monitored constantly through post-panoptican electrical devices such as cameras and gates. Drawing a parallel between an Islamic, oriental, and unknown country and the western cradles of civilization such as Greece, Britain, and America, Hamid through a geographical survey, in fact, tries to clarify how the post-global West has much in common with a disciplinary, uncivilized community in the East. The only difference is a matter of degree: a shift from a panoptican, disciplinary discourse to that of a controlling post-panoptican one due to the highest technological advances the West enjoys. To this end, the notions of “camp,” “sorting paradigm,” and “bio-politics” are to be discussed. It is argued that the West, despite the blurring of the borders through post-global capitalism, seems to have restored the old imperialist ethos in the form of the anti-racist racism. With the presence of such disciplinary and controlling discourses, in other words, and through the practice of “geo-fencing” and “geo-slavery,” the West has given rise to a new sort of racism which has been justified through the paradigm of security and anti-terrorist measures. In such situations, the whole society turns into a disciplinary whole in which some groups due to their racial, cultural, or religious factors are reduced to “bare life” and excluded in the “zone of indistinction” to forestall any kind of threat to the West. Such kind of treatment with “the other” gives away the violence founded in the liberal humanism and its anti-racist perspectives which have reigned over the world since the colonial era. The only difference is the fact that if otherization was first practiced through Benthamite pan-optican structures, now it is materialized through the post-panoptican structures of GPS, Biodermics, and mobile phones. The worst problems with the latter structures are: first, they are available and easily accessible everywhere; second, people willingly succumb to them. However, the hybridity that migration brings about through their presence in the West can pave the way for the emergence of a herterotopeia. Through such space of heterogeneity, which is in constant process of “becoming,” a new sense of belonging and, thus, identity on the part of the ethnic other is formed. The outcome would be a challenge to the notions of nativeness and different perception of the concept of the home on the part of the imigrant who would be able to “make a home” wherever he is regardless of his roots.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mohsin Hamid
  • Exit West
  • post
  • panopticism
  • camp