M. K. Gandhi (1927) An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments With Truth (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House) 420.
M. K. Gandhi (2001) The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India) 100 volumes. Volume 97, 454.
I am paraphrasing R. K. Narayan’s summary of the Bhagavad-Gita in his The Mahabharata: A Shortened Modern Prose Version of the Indian Epic (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1978) 147-148.
Echos of this are found in Meister Eckhart’s spirituality. In a sermon on the spiritual birth of the soul, he writes: “A man cannot attain to this birth except by withdrawing his sense from all things. And that requires a mighty effort to drive back the powers of the soul and inhibit their functioning. This must be done with force, without force it cannot be done. As Christ said: ‘The kingdom of heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force’ (Matt. 11:12).’”
Gandhi, The Collected Works of Mahatma, 279. This particular quote, and the two that immediately follow here, were brought to my attention by K. Ramakrishna Rao, chairman of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research, this past summer (July, 2008) when he presented his paper, “Colors Of Violence: A Psycho-Social analysis and a Gandhian Perspective” at the World Congress of Philosophy in Seoul, South Korea. I hereby acknowledge the substantial influence of his research upon mine while working on the present paper.
See K. Ramakrishna Rao’s above mentioned paper soon to be published in the International Proceedings of the World Congress of Philosophy
Gandhi, The Collected Works of Mahatma, 453 (Emphasis in italics is mine).
Narayan, The Mahabharata, 148.
“I learned from Hussein how to achieve victory while being oppressed.” “My faith is that the progress of Islam does not depend on the use of the sword by its believers, but the result of the supreme sacrifice of Hussain, the great saint.” See http://www.islamicwisdom.net/index.php/imam-hussain-views-of-non-muslim-scholars. Accessed on June, 2016.
Gandhi The Collected Works of Mahatma, 249.
See René Girard (2001) I See Satan Fall Like Lightning, tr. James G. Williams (New York: Orbis Books) 15.
For a precise summary of Girard’s thought see the ‘Foreword’ by James G. Williams in Girard I See Satan Fall Like Lightning.
Girard, I See Satan Fall Like Lightning, 15.
See the Foreword by James G. Williams in I See Satan Fall Like Lightning. xii.
Leo D. Lefebure (2000) Revelation, the Religions, and Violence (New York: Orbis Books) 16. Lefebure also provides evidence in this work (p.30-31) which suggests that the biblical story of Joseph has antecedents going back centuries before Israel in the Egyptian Tale of the Two Brothers.
I follow closely here the insightful and objective criticisms raised by Lefebure, Ibid., 20-23.
James G. Williams in I See Satan Fall Like Lightning. xii.
Lefebure, Revelation, Revelation, the Religions, and Violence, 150.
See Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani (2007) Ashura: Poems in English (Karbala: Imam al-Husain’s Sacred Sanctuary) 35-36.