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فراسوی تفکر پسااستعماری: هویت فراملی و تقابل ملی گرایی در ادبیات مدرن ایرلندی
شهریار منصوری

چکیده

هویت مدرن ایرلندی توسط سیلی از محذورات اجتماعی-سیاسی تعریف می شود. برخی از این محذورات، ریشه در تاریخ سلتیک دارد و از ساختارهای ملی ایرلند نشئت می گیرد و بسیاری دیگر جبرا طی فرایند مدرن سازی ایرلند بر ساختارهای ملی کشور تحمیل شده است. یکی از مهم ترین مخالفین تجلی هویت مدرن در ایرلند را می بایست تبلور فرهنگ سنتی و تفکر سیاسی سازی شده ی ملی گرایی دانست که باعث ایجاد شکافی نه تنها سیاسی-اجتماعی بلکه فردی و درونی درسطح جامعه ی پسا استعماری  ایرلند در درک مدرنیسم شده است. شکاف سیاسی ایجاد شده توسط تقابل میان تعریف مدرن از هویت ملی و تفکرات ساکن گرای ملی-بومی حکومتی همواره دیدگاه وهویت مدرن ایرلندی را به عنوان عاملی بیرونی، ناشناخته و غیر ایرلندی در نظر می گیرد که بایستی از عرصه های ملی کشور حذف گردد. در واقع بخاطر حضور چنین بیگانه سازی اجتماعی-سیاسی است که نیاز به ارایه تعریف سومی از هویت ایرلندی در کنار ساختار دو گانه و سنتی تعلق همراه با تقلید ویا مقاومت همراه با انزو در ادبیات و سیاست جامعه ایرلندی حس می شود. تعریف سوم از هویت مدرن ایرلندی درواقع تعریفی است ورای ساختارهای شکسته، جهت دار، و سیاسی ازپیشینه ی استقلال فردی در ایرلند. مقاله حاضر در صدد است با کنکاش در پیشینه ی تاریخی، اجتماعی و سیاسی هویت مبارز ایرلندی، تعریف سومی از هویت مذکور با نام هویت فرا ملی معرفی می نماید که هویت حکومتی مدرن ایرلندی را نه تنها خارج از چهارچوب فرض می نماید بلکه تعاریف متداول ازهویت استعماری، ضد استعماری و ملی گرا را نیز به چالش می کشد.

واژگان کلیدی
پسا استعماری - ادبیات ایرلند - هویت مدرن ایرلندی - آدرنو - دیالکتیک منفی - میشل فوکو - نظریه پردازی - جیمز جویس

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