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تاثیر انواع روش های داربستی بر توانایی و سبک خواندن زبان آموزان ایرانی

چکیده
پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از اصل داربست نظریه جامعه شناختی فرهنگی (Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976)  به بررسی  چهار تکنیک داربست ، یعنی سخت ، نرم (Saye & Brush, 2002) ، متقابل (Holton & Clarke, 2006)، و مجازی (Yelland & Masters, 2007) بر بهبود مهارت خواندن زبان آموزان ایرانی طراحی شده است. برای انجام این تحقیق، از بین 100 شرکت کننده، 80 زبان آموز همگن دختر و پسر براساس عملکردشان در آزمون  مقدماتی انگلیسی (PET)، با محدوده سنی 19 تا 25 سال از یکی از موسسات زبان انگلیسی بندرعباس انتخاب شدند. شرکت کنندگان در این تحقیق به طور تصادفی به 4 گروه تقسیم شدند ، یعنی گروه داربست نرم (SSG) ، گروه داربست سخت (HSG) ، گروه داربست متقابل (RSG) ، و گروه داربست مجازی (VSG). زبان آموزان در همه گروه ها از استراتژی های خواندن (شوری و مختاری ، 2002) ، مداخلات مربوطه و نظرسنجی استراتژی های خواندن به عنوان پس آزمون استفاده کردند. به همین ترتیب ، در بخش کیفی تحقیق ، ازگزارشهای زبان آموزان و همچنین مشاهدات معلم برای جمع آوری داده ها استفاده شد. داده هاي جمع آوري شده با استفاده از نرم افزار آماري SPSS نسخه 25 و با استفاده از آناليز واريانس يك طرفه و چند متغيره ANOVA (MANOVA) مورد مقايسه قرار گرفت تا ميانگين نمرات چهار گروه آزمايش در استراتژي هاي خواندن پس آزمون مقایسه شوند. داده های کیفی مربوط به گزارش های فراگسران و مشاهدات کلاس دروس معلمان با استفاده از روش های کدگذاری باز و محوری مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. از نتایج نشان داد که نه تنها آموزش های روش داربستی سنتی و مجازی تأثیرات متفاوتی در توسعه استراتژی های خولندن جهانی ، حل مسئله و حمایتی در بین زبان آموزان  ایرانی داشتند ، همچنین گروه داربست سخت (به عنوان یک گروه داربست سنتی) و به دنبال آن گروه داربست مجازی بیشترین استفاده از استراتژی های خواندن را داشته است. با این وجود ، گروه های داربست متقابل و نرم (به دنبال سایر فرم های سنتی داربست) به طور مشابه از استراتژی های خواندن کمتر استفاده کردند. یافته های این مطالعه درک قبلی از روش داربست در محیط EFL را گسترش داده و از نظر جنبه های آموزشی می تواند به پیشرفت دروس آینده کمک کند.
واژگان کلیدی
استراتژی خواندن - انواع روش های داربستی - استراتژی جهانی - استراتژی حل مسئله - استراتژی حمایتی

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