Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. (2010). Determining and describing reading strategies: Internet and traditional forms of reading. In H. S. Waters, & W. Schneider (Eds.), Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction (pp. 201-225). New York: Guilford Press.
Amiri, M., & Abedi, N. (2017). The impact of virtual scaffolding on the English language speaking
development of Iranian EFL learners. Paper presented in the 2nd International Conference on New Trends in English Language Teaching and Testing, Ardabil, Iran28 August 2017 (www.NTELTIR.com).
Amiri. M., & Maftoon, P. (2010). Awareness of reading strategies among
Iranian high school students. EDULEARN10 Proceedings CD, 6782-6791. ISBN: 978-84-613- 9386-2, IATED, Valencia.
Anderson, K. L. (2019). Explicit instruction for word solving: Scaffolding developing readers’ use of code-based and meaning-based strategies. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 63(2), 175-183.
Anderson, N. J. (2002). The role of metacognition in second language teaching and learning. ERIC Digest, 1-7.
Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 460-472.
Arnbak, E. (2003). Academic reading from reading process to learning process. Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal.
Attarzadeh, M. (2011).The effect of scaffolding on reading comprehension of various text modes on Iranian EFL learners with different proficiency levels. Social Science and Humanities, 4(2), 1-27.
Auer, N. (2016). Scaffolding foreign language learners’ reading strategies using tablet computers at two secondary schools in Denmark. Doctoral dissertation, School of Education, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Barnard, R., & Campbell, L. (2005). Sociocultural theory and the teaching of
process writing: The scaffolding of learning in a university context. The TESOLANZ Journal, 13, 76-88.
Boardman, A. G., Boelé, A. L., & Klingner, J. K. (2018). Strategy instruction shifts teacher and student interactions during text‐based discussions. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(2), 175-195.
Boulware-Gooden, R., Carreker, S., Thornhill, A., & Joshi, R. M. (2007). Instruction of metacognitive strategies enhances reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of third-grade students. The Reading Teacher, 61(1), 70-77.
Bruner, J., & Olson, D. (1973). Learning through experience and learning through media. Prospects, 3(1), 20-38.
Carrell, P. L., Pharis, B.G., & Liberto, J. C. (1989). Metacognitive strategy
training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 647-678.
Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 14-26.
Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P.B., & Robbins, J. (1999). Learning strategies handbook. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Chen, C., Toh, S., & Ismail, W. (2005). Are learning styles relevant to virtual reality? Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(2), 123-141.
Crystal, D. (1999). The future of Englishes. English Today, 15(02), 10-20.
Cubukcu, F. (2008). Enhancing vocabulary development and reading comprehension through metacognitive strategies. Issues in Educational Research, 18(1), 1-11.
Dehoney, J., & Reeves, T. (1999). Instructional and social dimensions of class web pages. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 10(2), 19-41.
Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 33-56). London: Ablex Publishing.
Eskey, D. E. (2005). Reading in a second language. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 563-579). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Farhady, H. (2005). Techniques for effective reading. Tehran: Rahnama Press.
Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS, statistics for statistics (5th ed.). London: SAGE Publications.
Goh, C. M. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners' listening comprehension problems. System, 28(1), 55-75.
Graesser, A. C., Greenberg, D., Olney, A., & Lovett, M. W. (2019). Educational technologies that support reading comprehension for adults who have low literacy skills. The Wiley Handbook of Adult Literacy, 2(3), 471-493.
Haghparast, S., & Mall-Amiri, B. (2015). The comparative effect of two scaffolding strategies on intermediate EFL learners’ reading comprehension. International Journal of Language learning and Applied Linguistics world, 8(2), 217-231.
Hedgcock, J., & Ferris, D. R. (2009). Teaching readers of English: Students, texts, and contexts. New York: Routledge.
Hemmye, C. L. (2004). Metacognitive and learning strategies used by adult novice web-based students. Doctoral dissertation, University of West Florida, The U.S.A.
Holton, D., & Clarke, D. (2006). Scaffolding and metacognition. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 37(2), 127-143.
Kargar, A. A. (2013). Investigating the effect of scaffolded extensive reading as an anxiety reducing strategy in an Iranian EFL context. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 35-44.
Lapp, D., Fisher, D., & Grant, M. (2008). “You can read this text-I'll show you how”: Interactive comprehension instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51(5), 372-383.
Larsen, R. E. (1992). Relationship of learning style to the effectiveness and acceptance of interactive video instruction. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 19(11), 17-21.
Levinsen, K., & Sørensen, B. H. (2008). IT: Academic learning and educational knowledge management: Report on project it learning 2006-2007. København, Denamrk: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsforlag.
Macaro, E., & Mutton, T. (2009). Developing reading achievement in primary learners of French: Inferencing strategies versus exposure to 'graded readers'. The Language Learning Journal, 37(2), 165-182.
McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. G. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(3), 218-253.
McVay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2012). Why does working memory capacity predict variation in reading comprehension? On the influence of mind wandering and executive attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(2), 302-320.
Mehrpour, S., Sadighi, F., & Bagheri, Z. (2012). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to Iranian EFL pre-university students. Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 31(1), 107-139.
Mirahmadi, S. H., & Alavi, S. M. (2016a). The role of traditional and virtual scaffolding in developing speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(2), 43-56.
Mirahmadi, S. H., & Alavi, S. M. (2016b). The effect of traditional scaffolding
treatments on the Iranian EFL learners’ performance on the speaking sub-skills of pronunciation, fluency, lexicon, and grammar. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods (MJLTM), 6(2), 155-165.
Mygind, A., & Winding, S. (2003). Read better. Aarhus, Denmark: Dansken.
Oczkus, L. D. (2018). Reciprocal teaching at work: Powerful strategies and lessons for improving reading comprehension. Virginia: International literacy Association.
Ohta, A. S. (2000). Rethinking interaction in SLA: Developmentally appropriate assistance in the zone of proximal development and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Sociocultural theory and second language learning, 4, 51-78.
Okkinga, M., van Steensel, R., van Gelderen, A. J., & Sleegers, P. J. (2018). Effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension of low‐achieving adolescents. The importance of specific teacher skills. Journal of research in reading, 41(1), 20-41.
Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2003). Exploring technology-mediated learning from a pedagogical perspective. Journal of Interactive Learning Environments, 11(2), 111-126.
O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow, England: Pearson.
Palincsar, A. S. (1986). Reciprocal teaching: Teaching reading as thinking. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
Pastor Cesteros, S. (2004). Second language learning Linguistics applied to the teaching of languages. Alicante, Spain: Universidad de Alicante.
Patel, D. S. (2011). Significance of technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) in language classes. Journal of Technology for ELT, 4(2), 1-2.
Perfetti, C., Landi, N., & Oakhill, J. (2005). The acquisition of reading comprehension skill. In M. Snowling, & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading (pp. 227-247). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Pica, T., & Doughty, C. (1985). Input and interaction in the communicative language classroom: A comparison of teacher-fronted and group activities. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Pishghadam, R., & Ghadiri, S. (2011). Symmetrical or asymmetrical scaffolding: Piagetian vs. Vygotskyan views to reading comprehension. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 7(1), 49-64.
Ragan, T., & Smith, P. (1996). Soft technologies: Instructional and informational design research. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational telecommunications and technology (pp. 541-569). New York: MacMillan.
Rauber, A.S., & Gil, G. (2004). Feedback to grammar mistakes in EFL classes: A case study.
Brasileira de Lingüística Aplicada, 4(1), 277-298.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching listening and speaking: From theory to practice. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Ruiz de Zarobe, Y., & Zenotz, V. (2018). Learning strategies in CLIL classrooms: how does strategy instruction affect reading competence over time? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(3), 319-331.
Sato, M. (2014). Exploring the construct of interactional oral fluency: Second language acquisition and language testing approaches. System, 45, 79-91.
Saye, J. W., & Brush, T. (2002). Scaffolding critical reasoning about social issues in a multimedia-supported learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 17-29.
Schutz, K. M., Danielson, K. A., & Cohen, J. (2019). Approximations in English language arts: Scaffolding a shared teaching practice. Teaching and teacher education, 81, 100-111.
Shang, H. F. (2015). An investigation of scaffolded reading on EFL hypertext comprehension. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(3), 293-312.
Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29(4), 431-449.
Tsai, Y., Ernst, C., & Talley, P.C. (2010). L1 and L2 strategy use in reading comprehension of Chinese EFL readers. Reading Psychology, 31(1), 1-29.
Van Keer, H., & Vanderlinde, R. (2010). The impact of cross-age peer tutoring on third and sixth graders' reading strategy awareness, reading strategy use, and reading comprehension. Middle Grades Research Journal, 5(1), 33-46.
Vandergrift, L. (2004). Listening to learn or learning to listen? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24(3), 3-25.
Verity, D. (2005). Vygotskyan Concepts for teacher education. Pan-SIG
Conference “Lifelong learning” proceedings. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://jalt.org/pansig/2005/HTML/Verity.htm
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Winnips, K., & McLoughlin, C. (2000). Applications and categorization of software-based scaffolding. In J. Bourdeau & R. Heller (Eds.), Proceedings of world conference on educational multimedia, hypermedia, and telecommunications2000 (pp. 1798-1799). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976).The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 17, 89-100.
Woolley, G. (2011). Reading comprehension: Assisting children with learning difficulties. New York, NY: Springer.
Yelland, N., & Masters, J. (2007). Rethinking scaffolding in the information age. Computers & Education, 48(3), 362-382.
Ying, S. W. M., & Aziz, A. A. (2019). Scaffolding approach with reading strategies in teaching reading comprehension to rural year 3 ESL learners in Malaysia. International Journal of Current Innovations in Advanced Research, 2(5), 6-26.