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انسان مداری در تقابل با زیست مداری: مواجه سوژه های انسانی با محیط زیست در رمان چساپیکه اثر جیمز ای میچنر
پیمان امان الهی بهاروند, بختیار سجادی

چکیده

استعمار اروپایی ها در آمریکای شمالی به آسیب ها و بحران های محیطی و اکولوژیک  فراوانی در این قاره پهناور منتج شد. تا پیش از ورود اروپایی ها به آمریکا، جنگل های این قاره با وجود سکونت هزاران ساله بومیان آمریکایی در آنها سرشار از منابع طبیعی بکر بودند. مهاجران اروپایی که با عبور از اقیانوس اطلس پا بر سواحل شرقی آمریکایی شمالی نهادند با انبوهی از اراضی جنگلی، حیوانات وحشی و روان آب های زلال مواجه شدند که به آنها نوید ساختن آینده ای روشن می دادند. این پژوهش با بهره گیری از نقد بوم گرا و با تکیه بر مفاهیم انسان مداری و زیست مداری به بررسی رمان چساپیکه( 1978) از جیمز ای میچنر می پردازد تا نشان دهد برخلاف بومیان آمریکایی که خود را بخشی از طبیعت می دانستند و نه حاکم بر آن، استعمار گران اروپایی که متاثر از جهان بینی انسان مداری بودند از هیچ تلاشی برای نیل به اهداف اقتصادی خود از طریق نابود کردن طبیعت و موجودات زنده فروگذار نکردند. این مقاله که پژوهشی مبتنی بر تحقیق کتابخانه ای به شمار می آید، با مبانی نظری آغاز می شود و در ادامه به بررسی نمونه های عینی مفاهیم نظری در رمان چساپیکه می پردازد. در همین راستا ضمن ارزیابی آثار ویرانگر ایدئولوژی انسان مداری در چارچوب نقد بوم گرا مصادیق جنگل زدایی گسترده، که یکی از نتایج فاجعه بار رواج انسان مداری در بین اروپایی های ساکن آمریکای شمالی بود، در رمان چساپیکه به تفصیل مورد بحث قرار خواهد گرفت. هدف اصلی نگارش این مقاله به چالش کشیدن نظرات انتقادی پاره ای از پژوهشگران و انسان شناسان اروپایی در رابطه با نقش مخرب بومیان آمریکایی در از دست رفتن منابع طبیعی آمریکای شمالی است. پژوهش حاضر ضمن تشریح نمونه های عینی تخریب محیط زیست در رمان مورد بررسی، نظریه های این محققین را زیر سوال می برد و نشان می دهد بومیان نه تنها نقشی در تخریب طبیعت ندارند بلکه همواره دارای دغدغه حفظ دنیای پیرامون خود و مظاهر زیبایی آن نیز هستند.

 
واژگان کلیدی
نقد بوم گرا، انسان مداری، زیست مداری، طبیعت، تنباکو

منابع و مآخذ مقاله

References

Billington, Ray Allen. America's Frontier Heritage (Histories of the American Frontier). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.

Booth, Annie L. “We Are the Land: Native American Views of Nature”. Nature across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science. Ed. Helaine Selin. Amherst: Springer Science, 2003: 329-350.

Buell, Lawrence. “Ecocriticism: Some Emerging Trends.” Qui Parle. 19, 2 (2011): 87-115

Calloway, Cloin G. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Dillman, Jefferson. Colonizing Paradise: Landscape and Empire in the British West Indies. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2015.

Garrard, Greg. Ecocriticism. Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2004.

Garrard, Greg. “Problems and prospects in ecocritical pedagogy, Environmental Education Research.” Environmental Education Research. 16, 2 (2010): 233-245.

Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm, Eds. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Georgia: the University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Grayling, A. C. Ideas That Matter: The Concepts That Shape the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2010.

Hames, Raymond. “The Ecologically Noble Savage Debate.” The Annual Review of Anthropology. 36 (2007): 177-190.

Horn, James. “Tobacco Colonies: The Shaping of English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake.” The Origins of Empire British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century. Eds. Nicholas Canny and Alaine Low. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998: 170-192.

Krech III, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: Norton & Company, 1999.

Leyden, Stuart G. "Chesapeake by James Michener". Rev. of Barkskins by Annie Proulx's. Theology Today. 36, 2 (1979): 287-289.

Michener, James A. Chesapeake. New York: Random House, Inc., 1978.

Santoro, Nicholas J. Atlas of the Indian Tribes of North America and the Clash of Cultures. Bloomington: iUniverse, 2009.

Severson, Marilyn S. James Michener: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Steiner, Gary. Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.

Tavoosi, Sohrab, and Shohreh Chavoshian. “An Ecocritical Reading of Vladimir Nabokov’s Pnin.” Critical Language and Literary Studies. 16, 22 (2019): 119-142.

Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University press, 1986.

Uminowicz, Glenn. "James Michener's Chesapeake". Tidewater Times Apr. 2, 2008, https://tidewatertimes.com/GelnnUminowicz-April2008.htm. Web. Accessed Aug. 10, 2018.

Vecsey, Christopher, and Robert W. Venables, Eds. American Indian Environmentalists: Ecological Issues in Native American History. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1980.

Whelan, Robert. Wild in Woods: The Myth of the Noble Eco-savage. London: Coronet Books, 1999.

Zarrinjooee, Bahman. “The Discourse of Othering Nature: A Postcolonial Ecocritical Reading of Wild Rare Animals in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide.” Critical Language and Literary Studies. 14, 18 (2017): 103-132.

References

Billington, Ray Allen. America's Frontier Heritage (Histories of the American Frontier). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.

Booth, Annie L. “We Are the Land: Native American Views of Nature”. Nature across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science. Ed. Helaine Selin. Amherst: Springer Science, 2003: 329-350.

Buell, Lawrence. “Ecocriticism: Some Emerging Trends.” Qui Parle. 19, 2 (2011): 87-115

Calloway, Cloin G. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Dillman, Jefferson. Colonizing Paradise: Landscape and Empire in the British West Indies. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2015.

Garrard, Greg. Ecocriticism. Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2004.

Garrard, Greg. “Problems and prospects in ecocritical pedagogy, Environmental Education Research.” Environmental Education Research. 16, 2 (2010): 233-245.

Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm, Eds. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Georgia: the University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Grayling, A. C. Ideas That Matter: The Concepts That Shape the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2010.

Hames, Raymond. “The Ecologically Noble Savage Debate.” The Annual Review of Anthropology. 36 (2007): 177-190.

Horn, James. “Tobacco Colonies: The Shaping of English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake.” The Origins of Empire British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century. Eds. Nicholas Canny and Alaine Low. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998: 170-192.

Krech III, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: Norton & Company, 1999.

Leyden, Stuart G. "Chesapeake by James Michener". Rev. of Barkskins by Annie Proulx's. Theology Today. 36, 2 (1979): 287-289.

Michener, James A. Chesapeake. New York: Random House, Inc., 1978.

Santoro, Nicholas J. Atlas of the Indian Tribes of North America and the Clash of Cultures. Bloomington: iUniverse, 2009.

Severson, Marilyn S. James Michener: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Steiner, Gary. Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.

Tavoosi, Sohrab, and Shohreh Chavoshian. “An Ecocritical Reading of Vladimir Nabokov’s Pnin.” Critical Language and Literary Studies. 16, 22 (2019): 119-142.

Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University press, 1986.

Uminowicz, Glenn. "James Michener's Chesapeake". Tidewater Times Apr. 2, 2008, https://tidewatertimes.com/GelnnUminowicz-April2008.htm. Web. Accessed Aug. 10, 2018.

Vecsey, Christopher, and Robert W. Venables, Eds. American Indian Environmentalists: Ecological Issues in Native American History. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1980.

Whelan, Robert. Wild in Woods: The Myth of the Noble Eco-savage. London: Coronet Books, 1999.

Zarrinjooee, Bahman. “The Discourse of Othering Nature: A Postcolonial Ecocritical Reading of Wild Rare Animals in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide.” Critical Language and Literary Studies. 14, 18 (2017): 103-132.

References

Billington, Ray Allen. America's Frontier Heritage (Histories of the American Frontier). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.

Booth, Annie L. “We Are the Land: Native American Views of Nature”. Nature across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science. Ed. Helaine Selin. Amherst: Springer Science, 2003: 329-350.

Buell, Lawrence. “Ecocriticism: Some Emerging Trends.” Qui Parle. 19, 2 (2011): 87-115

Calloway, Cloin G. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Dillman, Jefferson. Colonizing Paradise: Landscape and Empire in the British West Indies. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2015.

Garrard, Greg. Ecocriticism. Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2004.

Garrard, Greg. “Problems and prospects in ecocritical pedagogy, Environmental Education Research.” Environmental Education Research. 16, 2 (2010): 233-245.

Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm, Eds. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Georgia: the University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Grayling, A. C. Ideas That Matter: The Concepts That Shape the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2010.

Hames, Raymond. “The Ecologically Noble Savage Debate.” The Annual Review of Anthropology. 36 (2007): 177-190.

Horn, James. “Tobacco Colonies: The Shaping of English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake.” The Origins of Empire British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century. Eds. Nicholas Canny and Alaine Low. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998: 170-192.

Krech III, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: Norton & Company, 1999.

Leyden, Stuart G. "Chesapeake by James Michener". Rev. of Barkskins by Annie Proulx's. Theology Today. 36, 2 (1979): 287-289.

Michener, James A. Chesapeake. New York: Random House, Inc., 1978.

Santoro, Nicholas J. Atlas of the Indian Tribes of North America and the Clash of Cultures. Bloomington: iUniverse, 2009.

Severson, Marilyn S. James Michener: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Steiner, Gary. Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.

Tavoosi, Sohrab, and Shohreh Chavoshian. “An Ecocritical Reading of Vladimir Nabokov’s Pnin.” Critical Language and Literary Studies. 16, 22 (2019): 119-142.

Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University press, 1986.

Uminowicz, Glenn. "James Michener's Chesapeake". Tidewater Times Apr. 2, 2008, https://tidewatertimes.com/GelnnUminowicz-April2008.htm. Web. Accessed Aug. 10, 2018.

Vecsey, Christopher, and Robert W. Venables, Eds. American Indian Environmentalists: Ecological Issues in Native American History. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1980.

Whelan, Robert. Wild in Woods: The Myth of the Noble Eco-savage. London: Coronet Books, 1999.

Zarrinjooee, Bahman. “The Discourse of Othering Nature: A Postcolonial Ecocritical Reading of Wild Rare Animals in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide.” Critical Language and Literary Studies. 14, 18 (2017): 103-132.


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