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بررسی مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست در رمان همنام اثر جومپا لاهیری
علیرضا فرح بخش, رضوانه رنجبر شیخانی

چکیده

این جستار بر آن است که نمودها و تاثیرهای مختلف مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست را براساس نظریه‌های گایاتری اسپیوَک و هومی بابا، که بیشتر از دیگر منتقدین مطالعات فرهنگی به این موضوع پرداخته‌اند، در شخصیت‌‌های اصلی رمان همنام اثر جومپا لاهیری بررسی نماید. یکی از موضوع‌های محوری و حائزاهمیت در نقد مطالعات فرهنگی و ادبیات پسااستعماری، که در دهه‌های اخیر بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌است، مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست است. پرسش‌های بنیادین این مقاله عبارت‌اند ‌‌از: آیا می‌توان عناصر و مولفه‌هایی که بر مفهوم دیگری‌فرودست دلالت می‌کنند را در رمان همنام مشاهده نمود؟ واکنش شخصیت‌های اصلی رمان همنام در قبال تلقی ‌‌شدن به‌عنوان دیگری و فرودست چیست؟ برای پاسخ‌ دادن به این پرسش‌ها، مصادیق دیگری‌فرودست در رفتار، هویت و تعاملات اجتماعی آشیما (شخصیت اصلی نسل اول) و گوگول (شخصیت اصلی نسل دوم) و همچنین راهکارهای خودآگاه و ناخودآگاه این دو شخصیت برای رهایی از فرودستی و دیگری ‌انگاشته ‌شدن و نیز خلق هویتی هم‌تراز تحلیل می‌شوند. این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که در رمان همنام، مهاجرت نه‌تنها بر هویت مهاجران نسل اول، بلکه بر هویت فرزندان آن‌ها نیز تاثیر می‌گذارد. لاهیری فرودست بودن آشیما را در ازدواجِ ازپیش‌‌‌تعیین‌‌‌شده، وابستگی به خانواده و همسر، بارداری و مهاجرت و فرودستی گوگول را در نام و دوستی‌اش با سفیدپوستان آمریکایی به ‌‌تصویر می‌کشد. آشیما که درابتدا تمایلی به پذیرش فرهنگ غربی ندارد، به‌‌تدریج به فرهنگ آمریکایی گرایش پیدا می‌کند. از سوی دیگر، گوگول که همواره از هویت اصلی خود گریزان است، با گذشت زمان به فرهنگ هندی علاقه‌مند می‌شود. همچنین، این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که هویت‌های پیوند‌خورده و دوسویه‌‌ باعث خلق صدایی برای افراد دیگری و فرودست می‌گردند و حس قدرت و تعلق به آنان می‌بخشند، به‌گونه‌ای که در بستر فرهنگی جدید، خودی و همسان می‌شوند.

واژگان کلیدی
مطالعات فرهنگی-خوانش پسااستعماری-دیگری‌فرودست-هویت-مهاجرت-پیوندخوردگی-دوسویگی

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